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BIOL 2P94 (40)

Lecture 36

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Brock University
Dirk De Clercq

Outline of Lecture 36 (03-05 A; Shadmehr) Motor System I – Spinal Motor System I. Major components of motor system Parietal cortex: visual and proprioceptive processing gives positional info Motor cortex: compute forces needed to cause desired motor action Brainstem: tells spinal cord how to maintain balance during movement Spinal cord: effects movement, reflex stability, and relays sensory info Cerebellum: multijoint movements, posture, and motor learning Basal ganglia: learning and stability of movements, emotional aspects of movement II. Motor system diseases A) How spinal cord injury results in paralysis - Initial injury in small region  growth of damaged area  hemorrage of blood vessels  cyst, swelling, and cell death - Glu release  neuron excitotoxicity and glia apoptosis - Paralysis can be partially overcome with direct electrical stimulation from neural prosthetic B) Other diseases/conditions - Polio: virus kills motoneurons directly, post-polio syndrome includes motor unit enlargement followed by muscle breakdown - ALS: slow degeneration of motorneurons and motor cortex - Motor stroke: spinal motoneurons not affected, but central control is weak - Rigor mortis: stiff muscles after death, no ATP available for myosin detachment III. Properties of muscle fibers and muscle movement - Extrafusal vs intrafusal fibers and relationship to αand γ motoneurons - There is an optimum force of contraction with respect to muscle
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