BIOL 2P95 Lecture Notes - Retina, Sebaceous Gland, Aqueous Humour

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Anatomy of the Eye and Eye Movements
I. Anatomy
a. Walls of orbit
i. Pyramidal shaped; twice as deep as wide;
ii. 45 degree angle between orbits; eyeball occupies only anterior half
iii. lots of blood vessels and fat
1. shock absorber, cushion, lubricant, protects nerves/vessels
2. last place that fat pads will disappear in body
iv. floor: maxilla, zygomatic, palatine
v. medial: ethmoid, lacrimal, frontal (ethmoid =fragile bone, paper thin)
vi. roof: frontal, sphenoid
vii. lateral: zygomatic, sphenoid
b. Orbital foramina
i. optic canal: holds optic nerve and ophthalmic artery
ii. superior orbital fissure: CN III, IV, V1, VI, ophthalmic veins (sup/inf)
ophthalmic veins communicate w/ cavernous sinus and facial vein
iii. inferior orbital fissure: CN V2 from foramen rotundum
iv. ethmoidal foramina: ethmoidal nerves pass thru medial wallnasal nn.
v. fossa for lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal canal (inferomedial)
c. Lacrimal gland
i. superolateral part of orbit
ii. sensory innervation: Trigeminal (CN V1)
iii. parasymp. innervation: pteryogoid ganglion of facial nerve (secretomotor)
iv. Path of tear drainage:
olacrimal gland canals conjunctival sac on surface of eyeball
surface of eye lacrimal puncta (in papillae) canalicula
lacrimal sac nasolacrimal duct
d. Conjunctiva: mucosa that covers eyelid and goes onto sclera of eye
i. rich with blood vessels; gets inflamed (drinking or irritation)
e. Eyelids: protective skin flaps
i. Muscles
1. levator palpebrae superioris
oMotor Innervation: CN III
oFxn: opening superior tarsus
oassisted by superior tarsal muscle
2. Orbicularis Oculi
a. Motor Innervation: CN VII
b. Fxn: Blinking and tightly closing eye
ii. Tarsus (superior and inferior) with tarsal glands (mybomium glands)
1. Glands open up on inner surface of eyelid
2. Secrete lipid => prevents eyelids from sticking together
3. Under hormonal control: sebaceous gland
4. Duct can get clogged cyst
iii. Ciliary glands associated with eyelashes (cilia): superficial
1. When clogstye
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