BIOL 2P95 Lecture Notes - Aponeurosis, Peritoneum, Tunica Vaginalis

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Outline of Lecture 07
Abdominal Wall
I. Surface Anatomy
- Palpate: xyphoid process, ribs, anterior superior iliac spine, inguinal ligament,
mons pubis
- Can divide abdominal surface two ways (be able to name the regions)
- Subcostal, transtubercular, and two midclavicular planes give 9 regions
- Transumbilical and median plane gives 4 regions
II. Anterior Abdominal Wall
- Four major muscles of the anterior abdominal wall
1) External Oblique
2) Internal Oblique
3) Transversus Abdominus
4) Rectus Abdominus
- Other structures:
Linea alba
Transversalis fascia ( transverses abdominus)
Rectus sheath (recall what makes it up, and how it changes superior to
inferior)
(Arcuate line)
Umbilicus
III. Inguinal Region
- Inguinal ligament ( aponeuroses of external oblique, superficial inguinal
ring)
- Inguinal canal: spermatic cord (male) or round ligament (female) passes through
it
- Deep inguinal ring
- Male: Descent of testis
- Gubernaculum pulls testis through inguinal canal and into scrotum
- Peritoneum becomes processus vaginalis, of which stalk is obliterated and
remainder is tunica vaginalis
- Due to the way testis descends, other anterior abdominal wall structures have
analogous structures in spermatic cord and testis (be able to give detail)
- Female
- Ovaries migrate to lumbar region, but do not descend further
- Gubernaculum gives rise to ligament of ovary and round ligament of
uterus
IV. Hernias
- Definition of hernia: protrusion of structure out the cavity that normal contains it
- Inguinal hernia is most common type of hernia, and more common in males
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