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Hypoxia and Anoxia.docx

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Jeff Stuart

Hypoxia and AnoxiaMarch0514927 AM HyperoxiaO2 above normal physiological rangeHypoxiaO2 below normal physiological rangeAnoxiacomplete absence of O2 very hard to achieve In humans tissue hypoxiaanoxia can occur duringAt high altitude a lot of systemic responses that avoid this problem changes to ventilation and heart rate increased capillary density in highly oxidized tissueDue to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseDuring intense exercise tissue hypoxiaanoxiaDuring an ischemic event myocardial infarctionHumans and other mammals are relatively anoxiaintolerantHeart is not on here but it would be about the same as the brainThe higher the rate of metabolism the more oxygen flow the less the survivaltime there is in hypoxic conditionAdipose tissue could be down near the bottom as well Rate of ATP turnoverLactate dehydrogenase activity skeletal muscles are better at thisStore glucose as glycogen to use in cases like this able torun anaerobic respiration Humans and other mammals and also birds endothermic vertebrates are obligate aerobes There is always a cellular demand for O2 Adaptation to Tolerate the Suspension of Breathing Apnea in Diving Marine Mammals and BirdsA lot of these animals can survive a long time without oxygenWhales are giant think back to allometry In diving mammals and birds apnea can occur without tissue or lactate accumulation in the emperor penguinNot anaerobicdriven eventsThe animals are very active so they are not estivating or hibernatingLactic acid does accumulate but it takes 620 minutes for it to start MyoglobinShares sequence homology with hemoglobin but its a monomerBinds intracellular oxygenFound in skeletal muscle of all mammalsParticularly high levels occur in diving species
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