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Cellular Adaptations to Temperature Changes.docx

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Brock University
Jeff Stuart

Cellular Adaptations to Temperature ChangesMarch12141030 AM Exploiting futile metabolic cycles for heat production in endotherms and regional 1endothermsAcute thermal stress and the heat shock proteins1Mechanisms of thermal tolerance in ectotherms1Proteins flexibility vs stabilityMembranes homeoviscoushomeophasis adaptationFreeze avoidance and Freeze toleranceThere are some kind of fish that are ectotherms except in their brain and eyes Heat means speed of movement Adaptations Related to Environmental Temperature Vast majority of animal species are coldblooded ie they are ectotherms with core body temperaturesambient temperature Ectotherms may be homeothermy behavioural maintain constant body temperature or poikilothermic tolerate a range of body temperature energetically cheap Lots of species including birds and mammals are hotblooded ie they are endotherms that produce enough extra metabolic heat to raise core temperature above ambient Endotherms are often homeothermic because they can physiologically regulate rates of heat production andor loss Futile metabolic cycles increase metabolic heat production in response to coldMammalian brown adipose tissue BATthe billfish heater organFutile cycle Surface area vs volume its hard being a small endotherm2Surface area of a sphere4r heat being dispersed at body surface3Volume of a sphere43r heat produced in all cells Ambient temperatures between an approx range of 2832C are thermoneutral for people and rodents What happens when temperatures drop Small mammals like rodents rely on BAT to maintain body temperatureBrown because of the amount of mitochondria A large amount of BAT is located in the intersubscapular region BAT is a thermogenic heatproducing tissueNewborn humans have lots of brown fat tooThat goes away as they grow up How does BAT produce heatHint its brown because it has lots of mitochondria BAT cells
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