CANA 1F91 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Helen Creighton, Civic Nationalism, Historica Canada

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Wednesday, May 18th, 2016
Cana 1F91 Lecture #6
“Canadian Government Policy Towards First Nations”
Objective:
- To discuss Canadian government policies and attitudes to FN people
- To discuss the origins of the residential
Key Terms:
- Assimilation
- Numbered Treaties
- Indian Act
- Reserve System
- Residential Schools
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission
 First Nations’ Roles in the Development of Canada
- Fur trade
Cannot view FN as passive victims
- Military
War of 1812
- Battle of Queenston Heights
- Battle of Beaver Dams
- Add to the Canadian Mosaic
 How to Solve the “Indian Problems”
- Assimilation
Abandon lifestyle and culture
Take up agriculture
Accept Euro-Canadian education and religion
Enfranchisement
 Method of Assimilation
- Treaties
Why did the government resort to treaties?
- Numbered Treaties (1871-1921)
- “cede, release, surrender and yield up to the government…all their rights titles and
privileges whatsoever”
Why did Natives sign these treaties?
- A changing world
Why did the government sign treaties?
- To settle the west
- Reservation System
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Assimilating Native tribes into Euro-Canadian culture
- Promote agriculture
- Monitor activity
- Indian Act
Purpose of the Indian Act
- Defines who and Indian is and who they are not
- Gives powers to the government agent on the reserve to help control and influence
natives on the reserve
- defines the first nations people
Amendments to the Indian Act
- Pressure FN children to attend residential schools
 History of Residential Schools
- Natives recognizing the need for education
Debate over religion
- Bagot Commission (1842-1864)
- Davin Report (1879)
“The experience of the United states is the same as our own as far as the adult Indian is
concerned. Little can be done with him He can be taught to do a little at farming, at raising stock,
and to dress in a more civilized manner, but that is al. The child, again, who goes to a day school
learns little, and what little he learns is soon forgotten, while his tastes are fashioned at hone and
his inherited aversion to toll is in no way combined.”
- Problems w/ residential schools
Lack of funding
Less money spent on clothing and food
More time working in the barn and kitchen than studying in classroom (kids)
Diseases/Deaths (tuberculosis; about 4000 children died in these schools)
Many were buried in unmarked graves
- Last residential school ended in 1996
 Residential Schools
- Resistance to Residential schools
Parents tried to prevent children from going to schools
Children ran away from schools
Continued to speak their own language
Acts of Arson (schools burning down)
- Need to be aware of generalizations
Not all FN children had a neg exp.
Not all FN children attended these schools
Not all abuse was cause by the white people
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