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Costa Metallinos

Lecture 1: Introduction Wednesday, September 04, 2013 I. The Importance of Spectroscopy: Identification of unknown organic compounds  Did the reaction work?  Why did it work?  What else is in the reaction mixture? (impurities, other compounds?)  Did the purification method work? The goal is to be able to put all of the obtained data together and correctly interpret it. As the number of data increases, the complexity or the size of the molecule being analyzed increases. A. Traditional Methods of Analysis:  Melting point, boiling point, optical rotation  Chemical derivatization Example:  Chemical degradation  Combustion analysis (for purity)  Taste, smell, color (obsolete and quite dangerous!)  These methods work, but there are obvious drawbacks, such as the destruction of the sample. B. Modern Methods (extensive field):  Mainly the elucidation of the structures of organic compounds, but also of inorganic and organometallic compounds.  This analysis is done on dilute samples (solutions) or small amounts of the compound in vapor phase to minimize the interaction between molecules. 1. Main Methods:  Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): 10mm-100m, generally insensitive method of detection. (Bell and hammer analogy).  Infrared Spectroscopy (IR): 10 nm - 1mm  Mass Spectrometry (MS): 3  Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis): 10nm - 10 nm. Will not ionize the sample, but will excite electrons (which may cause isomerization to occur). Need super pure solvent!  X-ray Crystallography (not covered in this course!!!) 2. Advantages:  Obtain detailed information  Non-destructive methods  Small amounts of material are required C. Requirements to Determine the Structure of an Unknown Compound:  Use "chemical common sense" , or the knowledge of general principles structure and bonding in organic compounds.  Use an organ
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