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Lecture 4

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Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

CHYS 1F90 week 4: Constructing Youth Week 4: Constructing Youth Main points  Adolescence, teenager and youth are distinct yet overlapping concepts  Adolescence and teenagehood are often pathologized  There are different perspectives explaining adolescence, teenager & youth  Socio-cultural theorists tend to see these as context-specific, social concepts Terms Child - UN - Anyone who is under 18 years old. Youth - UN -18-34 years of age - In Ontario, 14-24 years - Varies by country/culture Adolescence - Idea became in the 15 century - Not a prominent term until the late 19 century o Stanley G. Hall  Rise in psychology and sociology  Discovered adolescence / made the category become more popular  Concerns about the future  Manhood (adolescence as a time to cultivate manhood)  Helped develop boy scouts  Embedded in the individual  Adolescents as a problem  Sexuality as special concern Teenager - Risk taking, reckless, rebellion, curious, misunderstood, emotional, incomplete, impulsive, living vicariously - After WW2 -> teenager became a popular term o Associated with trouble - Responsibilities and jobs - Men coming back -> teenagers seen as teenagers o Concerns CHYS 1F90 week 4: Constructing Youth  Sexuality  Getting into trouble  Linked to fun -> factories creating consumer goods (E.g. car, domestic instruments – stoves, vaccum cleaners) - More stuff, more freedom than before - Happy Days clip o Motorcycles, cars -> more ways to get to places o Jokes/pranks -> more fun o More consumer goods to use o Little family scene o Associated with working class family o More disposable income -> more ads identified to teenagers Psychological Adolescence - The notion of “becoming” an adult - Stanley Hall’s “problem” o Controlled o Rebelled o Period of trouble o Adolescence marked as a period of rebellion today o Thought of as a feared period Why do some teens ‘rebel’? - Traditional developmental psychology proposes an answer for this question o Freud  ID vs. Ego  Coming into adolescence, a child is in the “latency” stage – ID and Ego are “balanced”  Adolescents is the “genital” stage  Become aware of their sexuality again and “what it can do”  Time full of turmoil  Bombarded with instinctual “urges”  An internal struggle between ID and Super Ego  So the process of adolescence is one of great internal stress  Important developmental milestone  Outcome is the adolescent becoming a well-rounded adult  Parents need to allow the stress, if they don’t, rebellion will happen o Erikson  Also a time of struggle  To form one’s “identity”  Breaking away from the identity of parents CHYS 1F90 week 4: Constructing Youth  Becoming an individual  “Who are you?” -> more descriptive answers  Adult have more identifying features  Truly a time of “becoming”  Parental role is supporting  If “becoming” isn’t supported, difficulties may arise  Goal as a parent is to have the teen breakaway o Piaget  Also a time of “becoming”  Adolescence is a time to develop “abstract thinking” skills  Parental role is to support this  Conflict arises if society (parents) force their own way of thinking about a situation o Doesn’t allow for teen to ‘practice’ - A period of becoming o Development
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