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Lecture 2

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Child and Youth Studies
John Mc Namara

Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90 Dr. J. McNamara Fall 2011 Foundations of Development Kail & Barnfield (2009) Bronfenbrenner (1994) Lecture Overview Roles of theories Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology How theories of development are applied What is a Theory? A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations What makes a theory good? must be the least complex explanation must be able to be tested must predict future behaviour FFundamental Issues in Developmental Theories Nature / Nurture An interaction Overview Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology Biological theories of development Psychodynamic theories Learning-based theories Cognitive-Developmental theory Contextual theories Psychoanalytic Theories Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour Three components of personality Id Ego Superego IInner Conflict Between Id – Ego - Superego Psychoanalytic Theories Psychoanalytic Theories Freud’s stages of psychosexual development Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body Oral (birth – 1 year) Anal (1 – 3 years) Phallic (3 – 6 years) Latency (6 -11 years) Genital (12 onward) Erikson’s Psychosocial Development A neo-Freudian Viewed children as more active in development than Freud Far less emphasis on sexual urges More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development A series of developmental steps Remains more popular than Freud’s theory Psychoanalytical Theories Contributions • idea of unconscious motivation • focus on later consequences of early experiences Criticisms • no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality Learning Theories John Watson’s Behaviourism Only overt behaviours should be measured and analyzed Strong emphasis on environmental influences recall Locke’s tabula rasa Development is continuous and based on learning Little Albert Applications of Watson’s Behaviourism “Anyone can be anything” Learning Theories B. F. Skinner’s Radical Behaviourism Outlined principles of operant conditioning Focus on outcome of behaviour for pred
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