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Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

1 CHYS 1F90 March 12 & 14, 2013 Final exam - Fothat is the same - 17 - 4 questions, mc or short answers - Open book - Everything from week 6- to week 12 is the main focus - Concepts remain relevant, she’ll give a list Lecture 9: Gender and Sexuality Outline I/ Sex, gender and sexuality II/ Essentialism and constructionism III/ Gender and childhood IV/ Sex education Main Points Sex, gender and sexuality are distinct, though interrelated, concepts. Gender and sexuality can be examined through different lenses Gender and sexuality are central to experiences of childhood I/ Sex, gender and sexuality A) Definitions Sex: biology of male and female Gender: cultural meanings attributed to male and female (masculinity and femininity) Sexuality: desire B) The dominant model Sex male female Gender masculine feminine Sexuality attracted to females attracted to males 2 C) But… concerns with this model Linked to inequality and limiting options - Mostly around girls and women - Limiting options -> more male o Expectations of what you should be as a boy is more confined than females Lived gender and sexuality much more complicated - Messier than this model depicts o Could be a guy that’s really masculine and attracted to males o A guy that’s feminine that likes women II/ Essentialism and constructionism A) Essentialism – kind of like nature - The idea that there is something embedded in us - Believed that it is natural - Linked with modernism - Truth in our bodies - Can also be linked to other kinds of beliefs, like spiritual belief 1. Often resonates with normative mode Eg 1 Hormonal influences Eg 2 Neuroscience and education - Links between one’s sex and one’s gender - Boys have more capacity for special activities and girls for verbal activities o Important for boys and girls to go to school in a segregated environment so you can teach that they learn that way Eg 3 Links with lived experience - People’s observations in their everyday lives o When parents talk about their children  He really loves cars, its just a way he has been  Shes always loved dolls - Some people link this to sexuality as well 3 2. But also essentialist challenges to dominant model via science - Doesn’t always work the way of above Eg 1 Links with lived experience - Ive always felt that im straight/gay - Those identify with transgendered identify it as being trapped in the wrogn body - La vie en rose o Boy always thought he was a girl o “so am I a boy or girl” o Im a “girlboy” o Parents play tic tac toe to get a baby, when one wins , they get an X or a Y o His X went in the trash o Think it’s a scientific error Eg 2 Science challenging ‘brain science’: Eliot, Lise. Pink Brain, Blue Brain - Arguing that there is things about girls and boys brains that make them the way they are o Has been challenged - Men are from mars, girls from venus - Wanted to explain why girls are doing good in what subjects - Teachers are being taught how to teach a boys brain and a girls brain - Aren’t any clear cut differences, besides size, which is because of height/size difference - All organs are different in size - 90s research that men and women process language differently o Women tend to use both sides while processing o Men use left hemisphere o Husband and wife team – Hardvard Eg 3 Multiple sexes A. Fausto-Sterling (1993). “The Five Sexes: Why male and female are not enough” The Sciences (March/April 1993, 20- 24) - Want them to be either one or the other - Boy or female - Those born with both, you need to choose between them and most don’t feel that the decision should be made for them - 4 B) Social constructionism (and post-structualism) – kind of like nurture - the idea that society shapes how people are - Suggests that the nature world that we interact within a lense and put meanings to these things (e.g. history) - these ideas are linked to power. 1. What was social constructionism again? 2. Gender and sexuality as produced - The reason that a boy might like cars better than a girl is because of the social meanings that we have created within society attach meanings that if they play with another toy then they are going against the gender norms (e.g. all girls are like this, all boys are like this) - Deeply shape us to the core - 3. Feminine and masculine as diverse cross-cul
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