Feb 15, 2012
Lecture 6: Global inequality and globalization
I/ Global diversity and inequality
II/ Child work in global context
III/ Maternal and child health
IV/ Global economic policy
V/ Global movement of people
• There are global differences in understandings and experiences of young people
• Global inequality contributes to such differences and directly affects young people’s lives
• Children’s lives are shaped by local and global political and economic decisions.
I/ Global diversity and inequality
A) Geographic features
Where you live has an impact on childhood. (eg. Inuit parents parent in a certain way due to
B) Religion and culture
Eg. US did not sign the UNCRC due to their countries culture.
C) Internal inequalities
within families: Eg. Hierarchies of age, gender (could be beneficial to be
a boy in some families).
D) Global inequalities: across nations
1) Global income distribution: Charts
2)Global income distribution: From The Hungry Planet (2005) by Peter Menzel and Faith
People put all of their food for the week on a table, some people have way more than others.
3) Globalization The idea that the world has grown smaller and more connected.
• Capital and commodities The use of money freely around the world. Commodities are
the movement of goods for sale.
• Policies The UNCRC in global, with labour and economic policies. 2
• Inequality Some feel it has increased inequalities, while others feel it has decreased it.
• Information Travels rapidly around the world.
• Culture Making culture more similar, Americanization of global culture, Western ideas
through TV and media. Due to this many people are trying harder to preserve their
cultures. (Eg. Italian food movement).
• People Movement of people, easier for people to move because of airplanes and cars.
However, easier for some people to travel than others due to money.
• Environment Choices made in certain countries can affect others.
II/ Child work in a global context
1. General differences between industrialized nations and the global south
Child work more common in global south Majority of people under 15 are working
in developing countries.
Link to poverty Insufficient employment for adults who need the support of the
Link to demand for cheap labour Some employers see children as a good cheap
Lack of supported education Some children have to pay for school and books and
need to work to pay for their education.
2. E.g. Boudillon, M. 2005. “Working Children in Zimbabwe” Sociological Studies of Children
and Youth, 10, pp.721
• Child labour vs work Labour is bad, work is good, he says you cannot distinguish
between the two.
• Zimbabwe listened to children, conditions have deteriorated significantly. Many children
are doing domestic work, many children lose parents due to HIV/AIDS. Kids worked for
uncles/aunts for money.
• The African Charter on the Rights of the Child Children have obligations, and it is
expected for them to work. 3
• Similar issues in many other countries, including Pakistan
3. Addressing the situation?
• Accessible education Done through incentives to government, developing more
trade with other countries, prioritizing free education.
• Integrated approach to education, where children can go to school and also work
• Children’s say What do kids feel about work and what are their needs?
• Monitoring Safety, make sure work is done without children
• Support for parents Through good, quality employment.
4. Internationalization of capital and children’s work
• Multinational expansion
Movement of companies to find a cheaper labor source. Export processing zones are a space
created that is removed from labour and environmental laws provides employment for many
people but involves child labour and unsafe conditions.
• Effects in terms of production and consumption