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Lecture 6

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Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

Lecture 6: Global Inequality and Globalization February 11, 2014 3:01 PM Lecture 6: Global inequality and globalization Chat support over reading week: Monday, Feb. 17th 5:30-6:30 Ellyse Tuesday, Feb. 18th 12-1pm Rebecca Wed, Feb. 19th 8-9pm Janet Friday, Feb. 21st 12-1 Teresa Saturday, Feb. 22nd, 12-1 Janet Sunday, Feb. 23rd 8-9pm Rebecca Monday, Feb 24th 12-1pm Rebecca Outline I/ Global diversity and inequality II/ Globalization III/ Child work in a global context VI/ Maternal and child health V/ Donations VI/ What we can conclude Main points -There are global differences in understandings and experiences of young people -Global inequality contributes to such differences and directly affects young people’s lives -Children’s lives are shaped by local and global political and economic decisions. I/ Global diversity and inequality A) Culture -E.g. Burr’s work on Vietnam (2006) • There are strong beliefs how children should listen to elders and should/can do work • Comes into conflict with NGO's inspired by CRC and want to introduce different ways of being -E.g. USA and the CRC • Cultural reasons about US beliefs around parent's rights international documents etc. • Some is how they think about children -E.g. “In Africa we carry our children so they feel loved” (The Guardian, 2004) • Baby buggies sign of oppression • Another cultural idea where they think its bad to be "pushing" baby away from you instead of carrying on back. B) Geography • Inuit's played game of being abandoned ( might seem inappropriate in another culture) this helped practice the real issues of being abandoned in those harsh climates C) Internal inequalities -- -within nations Economic inequality can effect peoples health (US great wealth mass amounts of inequality) -within families • Certain children get stuff some don’t (division can be around age, sex, etc.) --girls are primarily to go without over boys D) Global inequalities: across nations Terms: Global South & Industrialized North Global south & industrial north: to recognize that it tends to be "majority of population lives poorer and in south" and vice versa for industrialized north Global South: To recognize that it tends to be majority of population of poorer people and happens to be in the sounds Industrial North: ton recognize that the north is more industrialized and has a more wealthy population Global inequality : few people control wealth and many many more experience inequalities. Global income distribution: Charts Food: a Global Portrait From The Hungry Planet (2005),29307,1626519,00.html#ixzz1lcd41wBw II/ Globalization A) Features of globalization -Global flow of capital and commodities • Internationalization of capital, how money moves very easily between countries, capital (investable money) can be moved and placed in various places around the world, as well as commodities • Have different parts of commodities produced in various areas of Globalized south, and consumed in Industrialized North -But regulated movement of people • Harder to move people than commodities • Tourists can move more frequently and easier than a refugee -e.g. Tourism • Travel and moving through tourism -e.g. Adoption • Travel through adoption o Another way children move across cultures and borders -E.g. Overseas and migrant workers • Children less likely to move this way, and parents more likely …(Philippines and Mexico) and don’t see parents much -E.g. Immigration and refugees • When we think about immigration and refugees we think of Canada, but really places in global south have high levels of refugees (turkey for example) have thousands of refugees children (audio slide show) -Global inequality -Global flow of information and culture • Export of american culture through business movies etc. • Idea that internet has reduced this because it is so easy for anyone to post their own culture -Policies B) Global economic policy, e.g. debt • Economic systems and how they make connections between the wealth and inequality -Debt and inequality • Number of countries in world have great debt (mostly poorer 3rd world countries, EXCEPT US). How places came into debt was to buy infrastructures, time when world bank would lend money to certain # of countries • Vision of bettering countries, money went into wrong hands (dictators) issue became even more severe and now they have to pay back debts. -World Bank and Structural Adjustment Programs • World bank is global credit union countries contribute to it and it loans money to countries that need to borrow money • Structural adjustment programs developed, rules on how to pay back based on specific economic principles o Wanna make sure country has business available and to pay debt -Linked to neo-liberal economic policies o Neo-liberal views, cutting back from social investments , opening trade, privatizing, deregulating prices III/ Child work in a global context Generally: -Child work more common in global south o In overall when talking about child work, way more in global south than in canada directly related poverty -Link to poverty o If family does not have resources, you do what you can to get those resources that you need, you put children into work o Also children In the street -Link to demand for cheap labour o Low paid work o Keeps higher profits -Lack of supported education o In countries where education costs money, if you go to school family is going to miss out on wages you could have made, but also has to pay towards your education B) Bourdillon, “Working Children in Zimbabwe” -Child labour vs work o When people talk about children worker we think child labour o Concerned word "labour" is formal work with regulations in institutions o Says children do tons of work that isn't "labour" working for family for example and needs to be considered -The African Charter on the Rights of the Child o Talks about rights of child to work, points to cultural differences o Don’t say that children shouldn’t go to school but that work has good values behind it and is important also -Similar issues, eg Pakistan C) Link to internal inequalities D) Link to internationalization of capital -Unemployment in Global North, limited training in Global South o Companies can easily pack up and move to the global south for cheaper labour o Business closing in global north and there is unemployment o Jobs are given to refugees and children o Conditions are very unsafe (factory collapse in Bangladesh a result of companies cutting corners to save money) -Cheap goods produced in problemat
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