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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
John Mc Namara

Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90
 Dr. J. McNamara Fall/Winter 2010 Mid-term exam  Posted Friday Oct 22 nd th  Due Friday Oct 29 – 4pm  Submit to  Instructions for completing and submitting will be posted on Sakai  Create profile  Course ID: 3573922  Course Password: CHYS1F90
 Lecture Outline  Socialization  Development of Self  The family  Attachment theory  Socialization and parenting Socialization  Process by which children acquire the social, emotional and cognitive skills needed to function in a community How does one become well socialized?  Self concept  Self esteem  Self identity The Self The combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique How does the “Self” develop? Self Concept  an individual's perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics – Academic – Sports – Relationships – Etc  Self concept is domain specific DDevelopment of the Self  Who am I? – Preschoolers self-concepts concrete and physical but rudimentary psychological awareness (age and sex) – Middle-schoolers self-concepts include more ‘inner’ qualities – Adolescents recognize they are not the same in all situations Self-Esteem  Self-esteem – One’s evaluation of one’s worth as a person – A global sense of self – Self esteem develops  important implication for educators Self-Esteem  Hierarchical model of self-esteem Self-Esteem  How do children rate themselves? – Ages 4-7: all positive  Age 8: ratings similar to others’ evaluations  Adolescents: depends on relationship  Relational self-worth  Some declines in early adolescence Self-Esteem  Social influences on self-esteem – Parenting styles – Social comparison to peers – Culture, ethnicity Identity  Identity – Self-definition, sense of who one is, where one is going in life, and how one fits into society Identity  Identity formation takes time  Similar for males and females, but…  Four factors influence identity formation – Cognitive influences – Parenting influences – Scholastic influences – Sociocultural influences The Family Understanding the Family  The family is a social system – Most important function is to socialize children  Family is a network of reciprocal relationships – Parents influence children and children influence parents – Nuclear family – Extended family The Family as a Social System  Characteristics of Family System – Constantly developing - dynamic – Embedded within larger culture  Culture is also changing The Family as a Complex Social System  Changes in larger culture  Single adults  Later marriage  Decreased childbearing  Women’s employment  Divorce & single-parent families  Same-sex mariages  Poverty  Remarriages Parental Socialization  Dimensions of parenting – Acceptance/responsiveness  Warmth and affection – Demandingness/control  Supervision and limits Parental Socialization  Patterns of parenting (Maccoby & Martin, 1983)  Authoritarian  Authoritative  Permissive  Uninvolved Attachment Theory  Attachment describes – Close emotional relationship between two people – Mutual affection – Desire to maintain proximity  Reciprocal relationships Attachment and Development  Synchronized routines  Participants adjust behaviours in response to partner  Like a “dance”  Occur several times a day  Promote attachment  Not always positive Attachment and Development  Phases in infant attachment development • Asocial phase (0
 to 6 weeks) • Indiscriminate Attachments (6 weeks – 6/7 months) • Specific Attachment (7-9 months) • Multiple Attachments (by 18 months) TTheories of Attachment  Is feeding the cause of attachment? – Psychoanalytic theorists  Oral gratification – Learning theorists  Food is primary reinforcer  Mother becomes secon
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