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Week 7: Class, Inequality, and Poverty.doc

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Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

Original Lecture = “Cambria” Tuesday, February 25, 2014. Added on notes = “Arial Narrow” Week 7: Class, inequality and poverty Outline I/ Defining class II/  Inequality in Canada III/ Contributors to inequality IV/  Effects of class differences V/ The deficit model VI/ Cultural capital VII/  Cultural capital in action Main points Class is defined in different ways. Class­based inequality is a feature of our society and has a significant impact on young people’s lives.  Cultural capital suggests hidden forms of class inequality. I/  Defining class... • Differences in wealth:  “money and valuable goods a person or family controls minus outstanding debt”  (Macionis 259). • Class as occupation, with a focus on income • Relation to means of production o Relational o proletariat, petty­bourgeoisie and bourgeoisie  • Skills, educational resources • Class composite • Wealth goes beyond how much money someone makes • Do you own several properties, businesses, money invested in the bank, etc. • The focus is on income and how much you make (primary way of defining class) • A way of thinking about class that is a Marxist way of thinking • Measuring skills and educational resources  • An approach that people who are more thorough try and use (adding all the points up and making  assessments drawn from that) II/ Inequality in Canada A)  Ideology of classlessness • Class is something that is more or less visible • Belief that we do not really have classes • Hiding some kinds of truths = ideology • This is focused only on income and not other ways in which class can be covered B) Distribution of income in Canada •­income­inequality­by­ numbers_n_1545900.html#s516601&title=8_Manitoba C) Distribution of wealth in Canada •­and­income­in­the­top­1/ Tuesday, February 25, 2014. D)  The growing gap • Canada’s Gini Co­efficient has increased: .281 in 1989, .32 today • Net worth of those with income over $75 000 up 15.2% since 1999 • Net worth of those with income $20 000 ­ $29 000 down 21.2% since 1999 E) Poverty in Canada • About 1 in 10 children in poverty (2008, after­tax income) • Children and youth 38% of food bank users but only 20% of the population • 40% of low­income children live in families with at least one parent working full­time  • Average non­mortgage debt per Canadian: $27 355 (Globe and Mail) • Class inequality in Canada has been growing and we do indeed have it • They are working full-time earning wages that are not enough III/  Contributors to inequality A) Individual level: • Parental un/employment • Wealth (or not!) • Parental education/skills • Timing of parenthood • Family formation: e.g. 20% of children with single moms in poverty • Poverty can create Dis/ability • The individual, community, national, and policy level are interconnected • Teenage parenthood can be very difficult if you are unskilled, do not have much money, etc. B) Community/national level • Un/employment levels • Rising costs  • Niagara is actually one of the craziest places to be in terms of unemployment • Folks often have a hard time getting back to work •    Tuesday, February 25, 2014. • (In regards to the chart: the amount you have to pay vs. the amount of money you make • One of the best ways to tackle poverty is at this local level • Contract work, e.g. “No Benefits, no guarantees: Sweeping study finds big increase in temporary,  contract and casual jobs” (Saturday Star, Feb. 23, 2013) • Inequalities linked to culture and race o E.g. new immigrant poverty: 1 in 4 children in poverty o E.g. aboriginal poverty: 1 in 4 children in poverty • Value of services at local leve
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