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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Lauren Mc Namara

Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90 Dr. J. McNamara Fall/Winter 2011 Lecture Outline  Intelligence  Basic learning processes  Cognition  Metacognition (Self regulated learning) What is Intelligence  Thought to be a stable trait  A capacity  Many theories of what intelligence is… Are sports intelligence? Is music intelligence? How is Intelligence Measured?  Most current test  The Wechsler Scales – WAIS – III For adults. eg. how many weeks are there in a year? Who proposed the theory of relativity? Who painted the Sistine Chapel? What is the world’s population? – WISC – IV For infants – Tests include both verbal and nonverbal (performance) measures How is Intelligence Measured? Range of Intelligence Intelligence is a stable trait? Average IQ is always 100. Most people are between 85-115.  How stable are IQ scores across childhood? – Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70) – many children show fluctuations  Increase or decrease; not random  Environment important What do IQ Scores Predict?  Scholastic achievement – .50 correlation with future grades  Vocational outcome – occupation – Education IQ scores from when a child is in grades 1,2,3 can predict their level of education in the future as well as their future job. Factors that Influence IQ  Evidence for Heredity – Twin Studies  Identical twins’ IQ correlated more than fraternal IQ might be genetic – Adoption Studies  Adopted children’s IQs resemble biological parents more than adopted parents Intelligence is a stable trait? IQ and self-regulated learning: a socio-cultural cameo! Reminder: a socio-cultural perspective prioritizes importance of culture, social relations, social structure, social inequality Culturally specific  E.g. Kpelle in Liberia: Western researchers visited Liberia and wanted to do IQ testing. Gave people food, tools, clothing, and containers, and asked them to organize them logically. They organized things in order of function (eg. orange with knife). Class-based culture  Basil Bernstein: Worked in England and teaching boys (lower class, considered less intelligent), he found they weren’t less intelligent, but their language was much different. He found that middle class boys had a broader, more elaborated speech. He argued that in school tests were based on middle class speech, which led to the lower class disadvantage.  Hart and Risley: Met with a child every month (from the 7 month period), until the child was four. They would tape the conversations with parents.  45 million: The higher class kids had 45 million words by age four.  26 million: Middle class kids.  13 million: Low class kids.  Socio-economic inequality: Nutrition, sports, etc influence kids IQ, some kids don’t have the same advantages as others. IQ tests not benign: Even in terms of getting into some schools, IQ tests continue to be used. Same with getting certain jobs. We see some sorting being done with IQ tests.  Resources, labeling and discrimination: Use of IQ to show superiority.  Stereotype threat: People who experience a negative stereotype will in turn respond badly in a test that tests the thing they were stereotyped about. -Group of black athletes and white athletes. First group is told it is about testing your physical abilities, black people succeed. Second group is told it’s based on strategic thinking, white people succeed. Self-regulated learning  Assuming a level playing field: suggests that everyone is equal, but some people can’t accept that certain genders or races are intelligent.  Embedded cultural values  Individualizing: How much is it the individual? How much is it the situation? Early Learning - Cognition Going through the world making sense o
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