Child and Youth Studies
Dr. J. McNamara
Basic learning processes
Metacognition (Self regulated learning)
What is Intelligence
Thought to be a stable trait
Many theories of what intelligence is…
Are sports intelligence? Is music intelligence?
How is Intelligence Measured?
Most current test
The Wechsler Scales
– WAIS – III For adults. eg. how many weeks are there in a year? Who proposed the
theory of relativity? Who
painted the Sistine
Chapel? What is
– WISC – IV For infants
– Tests include both verbal
How is Intelligence
Range of Intelligence Intelligence is a stable trait?
Average IQ is always 100. Most people are between 85-115.
How stable are IQ scores across childhood?
– Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70)
– many children show fluctuations
Increase or decrease; not random
What do IQ Scores Predict?
– .50 correlation with future grades
– Education IQ scores from when a child is in grades 1,2,3 can predict their level of
education in the future as well as their future job.
Factors that Influence IQ
Evidence for Heredity
– Twin Studies
Identical twins’ IQ correlated more than fraternal IQ might be genetic
– Adoption Studies
Adopted children’s IQs resemble biological parents more than adopted
Intelligence is a stable trait?
IQ and self-regulated learning: a socio-cultural cameo!
Reminder: a socio-cultural perspective prioritizes importance of culture, social relations, social
structure, social inequality
E.g. Kpelle in Liberia: Western researchers visited Liberia and wanted to do IQ testing.
Gave people food, tools, clothing, and containers, and asked them to organize them
logically. They organized things in order of function (eg. orange with knife).
Basil Bernstein: Worked in England and teaching boys (lower class, considered less
intelligent), he found they weren’t less intelligent, but their language was much different. He
found that middle class boys had a broader, more elaborated speech. He argued that in
school tests were based on middle class speech, which led to the lower class
Hart and Risley: Met with a child every month (from the 7 month period), until the child was
four. They would tape the conversations with parents.
45 million: The higher class kids had 45 million words by age four.
26 million: Middle class kids. 13 million: Low class kids.
Socio-economic inequality: Nutrition, sports, etc influence kids IQ, some kids don’t have the
same advantages as others.
IQ tests not benign: Even in terms of getting into some schools, IQ tests continue to be used.
Same with getting certain jobs. We see some sorting being done with IQ tests.
Resources, labeling and discrimination: Use of IQ to show superiority.
Stereotype threat: People who experience a negative stereotype will in turn respond badly in
a test that tests the thing they were stereotyped about.
-Group of black athletes and white athletes. First group is told it is about testing your physical
abilities, black people succeed. Second group is told it’s based on strategic thinking, white people
Assuming a level playing field: suggests that everyone is equal, but some people can’t
accept that certain genders or races are intelligent.
Embedded cultural values
Individualizing: How much is it the individual? How much is it the situation?
Early Learning - Cognition Going through the world making sense o