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Child and Youth Studies
Lauren Mc Namara

Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90 Dr. J. McNamara Fall 2011 Foundations of Development Kail & Barnfield (2009) Bronfenbrenner (1994) Lecture Overview  Roles of theories  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology  How theories of development are applied What is a Theory? A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations  What makes a theory good? – must be the least complex explanation – must be able to be tested Eg. Swans are all white. What if there are black swans? – must predict future behavior Fundamental Issues in Developmental Theories  Nature / Nurture Some say children are a result of their biology. Some say it’s a result of upbringing.  An interaction of biology and environment. Children are the result or nature and nurture. Overview  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology – Biological theories of development – Psychodynamic theories – Learning-based theories – Cognitive-Developmental theory – Contextual theories Psychoanalytic Theories Freud’s Psychosexual Theory · Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour – Three components of personality  Id part of you that wants what it wants - instinctual  Ego sense of how do I balance things?  Superego part a person that understands right or wrong - holds us in check Some people say the “Joker” is the grown up version of pure ID. Inner Conflict Between Id – Ego - Superego Psychoanalytic Theories  Freud’s stages of psychosexual development  Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body • Oral (birth – 1 year) thumb sucking • Anal (1 – 3 years) development of ego, some control over themselves • Phallic (3 – 6 years) • Latency (6 -11 years) sports, school, kids continue to develop an ego • Genital (12 onward) puberty, hormone development Erikson’s Psychosocial Development  A neo-Freudian  Viewed children as more active in development than Freud  Far less emphasis on sexual urges  More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development  A series of developmental steps  Remains more popular than Freud’s theory Psychoanalytical Theories Contributions · idea of unconscious motivation often uses hypnosis · focus on later consequences of early experiences Criticisms · no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality Learning Theories John Watson’s Behaviorism  Only overt behaviors should be measured and analyzed  Strong emphasis on environmental influences – recall Locke’s tabula rasa “blank slate” things in environment shape behavior directly  Development is continuous and based on learning Little Albert Little Albert: made a baby associate animals with loud noises, to make the baby hate animals. From that Watson thought he could modify behavior. Applications of Watson’
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