Running head: CHYS 1F90 Assignment
Two spaces after period.
Child and Youth Studies
Dr. J. McNamara
Suomi uses Freud’s idea
– What happens early affects adulthood
– However, research is cloudy
Research with animals has permitted a more direct study of the relationship
Macaques shared 90% of our genes
Basic troop behaviour (Macaques share the same group mentality as people)
20% of Macaque Population
Highly reactive monkeys
Prolonged HPA activation
High cortisol levels
Put a plastic clown in the Macaque habitat. Most pat it, sniff it, and continue on their routines.
20% of the Macaques hurt themselves trying to leave the habitat. In nature, they die young, have
low reproduction levels, and eat last.
Unusually supportive moms
20% of macaque mothers exhibit very supportive care of their infants
Overly affectionate with their infants. When the clown is in the habitat, they would hold the infant,
and not let it escape, and show them the clown so the infant wouldn’t be scared.
Process of breeding with the intention to create offspring that share the traits of both parent
– Understanding genetics
Increases the likelihood that a highly reactive monkey will be born
Highly Reactive Infant
Highly Nurturing Mom
Adoption: cross fostering. He puts a highly reactive infant with a highly nurturing Mom. The Experiment
Lessons Learned from Rhesus Monkeys
Social and physical environments shape the networks and patterns of the brain
Modification of neural pathways as a function of experience
The brain can be shaped by the social environment. This is called neural sculpting.
The changes are not simply behavioural
Changes in biology - neurology
Suomi changed the way that a brain worked simply through changing the Macaques moms.
Understanding Neural Connections
Strengthening a neural connection through experience
Neural Synapse Gap between neurons where messages fire between neurons
A connection of neurons
Allow the nervous system to connect to and control other systems of the body
Messages throughout the body
Starts prenatally and extends well into childhood years
Stability, strength of synapses depend on effective firing of connections
Neurons must be used or else they are lost. To use neurons, they must be strong and stable.
· Effectiveness determined by speed that neurons