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CHYS 1F90 (374)


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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
John Mc Namara

CHYS 1F90 – Lecture notes Thursday Sept 30 & Tuesday Oct 5 Lecture Outline  From conception to birth  Infant capabilities  Basic learning processes  Cognition  Metacognition  Intelligence Prenatal Development  Period of the zygote – From conception to implantation in uterine wall  Period of the embryo – From week 3 to week 8  Period of the fetus – From week 9 to birth The Embryo – First Trimester  In second month… – Ears are formed – Rudimentary skeleton – Limbs develop – Brain develops rapidly – Indifferent gonad appears – About 2.5 cm long and 7 g Second Trimester Week 10 - 24 – Fetus able to kick, twist, etc. – Heartbeat can be heard – Can swallow, digest, urinate – Testosterone secreted by testes of males – Ultrasound can detect sex – 7.5 cm long; under 28 g Third Trimester Third Trimester Week 25 - 39  Third trimester – “finishing phase” – Organ systems mature – Weight gain PPremature Births Viability at 23 – 28 weeks A Healthy Womb Environment Environmental Influences  Teratogens – Agents such as viruses, drugs, chemicals, radiation that can harm developing fetus  Maternal characteristics – Nutrition, emotional well-being, age Effects of Teratogens  Each developing structure has a sensitive period – A time when it is particularly susceptible to damage from teratogens  Once fully formed, parts are less susceptible to damage Maternal Disease  Rubella st – Most dangerous in 1 trimester – Blindness, deafness, cardiac abnormalities, Intellectual impairments  Toxoplasmosis (a parasite in animals) – Acquired from undercooked meat or handling feces from cats – Miscarriage / Brain Damage Thalidomide Tragedy  A medication to relieve morning sickness – Lab tests with rats showed no effect on fetus  However, very harmful when taken early in human pregnancy – Many babies born with severely deformed eyes, ears, noses, hearts, and phocomelia  Alcohol – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) – Caused by drinking during pregnancy – Effects include microencephaly, malformation, hyperactivity, seizures, below- average intelligence Early Learning Early Learning SSensory Capabilities  Hearing – Newborns can discriminate mother’s voice – Quickly learn to recognize words – More developed than visual ability at birth Niagara Infant Hearing Program Niagara Infant Hearing Program  All newborns screened  Pass or refer  NPCC (SSN) SSensory Capabilities  Taste and Smell – Newborns have taste preferences – React to noxious odors – Can recognize scent of mother  Touch, Temperature, Pain – Therapeutic massage for premature infants – Sensitive to food, room temperature – Sensitive to pain of circumcision Sensory Capabilities  Vision – Least mature sense in newborns – Visual acuity of 20/600  Adult level at 12 months – Require sharper visual contrasts
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