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CHYS 1F90 (374)


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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90 Dr. J. McNamara Fall 2013 Foundations of Development Kail & Barnfield (2009) Bronfenbrenner (1994) Lecture Overview  Roles of theories  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology  How theories of development are applied What is a Theory? A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations  What makes a theory good? – must be the least complex explanation – must be able to be tested – must predict future behaviour Overview  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology – Biological theories of development – Psychodynamic theories – Learning-based theories – Cognitive-Developmental theory – Contextual theories Biological Theories  Maturational Theory  Development unfolds “naturally”  Let children “unfold”  Ethological Theory  Focus on evolutionary perspectives  Behaviours are adaptive Biological Theories Contributions • Highlight the importance of biological as a basis for development Criticisms • Not nearly enough attention paid to environment Psychoanalytic Theories Freud’s Psychosexual Theory • Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour – Three components of personality  Id  Ego  Superego Inner Conflict Between Id – Ego - Superego Psychoanalytic Theories  Freud’s stages of psychosexual development  Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body • Oral (birth – 1 year) • Anal (1 – 3 years) • Phallic (3 – 6 years) • Latency (6 -11 years) • Genital (12 onward) EErikson’s Psychosocial Development  A neo-Freudian  Viewed children as more active in development than Freud  Far less emphasis on sexual urges  More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development  A series of developmental steps  Remains more popular than Freud’s theory Psychoanalytical Theories Contributions • idea of unconscious motivation • focus on later consequences of early experiences Criticisms • no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality LLearning Theories John Watson’s Behaviourism  Only overt behaviours should be measured and analyzed  Strong emphasis on environmental influences – recall Locke’s tabula rasa  Development is continuous and based on learning Little Albert AApplications of Watson’s Behaviourism  “Anyone can be anything” LLearning Theories  B. F. Skinner’s Radical Behaviourism
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