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Lecture 2

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Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

Child and Youth Studies 
 CHYS 1F90 Dr. J. McNamara Fall 2012 Foundations of Development Kail & Barnfield (2009) Bronfenbrenner (1994) Lecture Overview  Roles of theories  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology  How theories of development are applied What is a Theory? A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations  What makes a theory good? – must be the least complex explanation – must be able to be tested – must predict future behaviour Fundamental Issues in Developmental Theories  Nature / Nurture  Nature -> biological predispositions are most important  Nurture-> environmental influences are most important  An interaction of biology and environment Overview  Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology – Biological theories of development – Psychodynamic theories – Learning-based theories – Cognitive-Developmental theory – Contextual theories Psychoanalytic Theories Freud’s Psychosexual Theory  Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour – Three components of personality  Id – instinctual urges; don’t act on it  Ego – helps to govern between the id and superego  Superego – societal norm; do what’s right Inner Conflict Between Id – Ego - Superego Psychoanalytic Theories  Freud’s stages of psychosexual development  Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body • Oral (birth – 1 year) • Anal (1 – 3 years) • Phallic (3 – 6 years) • Latency (6 -11 years) – not much happens development wise • Genital (12 onward) Erikson’s Psychosocial Development  A neo-Freudian  Viewed children as more active in development than Freud  Far less emphasis on sexual urges  More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development  A series of developmental steps  Remains more popular than Freud’s theory  A focus on conflict  A focus on environment and social nature of conflict Psychoanalytical Theories Contributions  idea of unconscious motivation  focus on later consequences of early experiences Criticisms  no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality Learning Theories John Watson’s Behaviourism  Only overt behaviours should be measured and analyzed  Strong emphasis on environmental influences – recall Locke’s tabula rasa – blank slate  Development is continuous and based on learning  We can manipulate behaviour Little Albert  Exposed Albert to a rat – never been exposed before  Put a rat on his lap and then make a loud noise at the same time repeatedly so that every time he heard the noise, he knew the rat would be there  Did it without the noise, and it upset him o Conditioned to not like animals Applications of Watson’s Behaviourism  “Anyone can be anything” Learning
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