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Lecture 4

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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Rebecca Raby

CHYS 1F90 Lecture 4 Sept. 27, 2012 What is Intelligence?  Thought to be a stable trait  A capacity  May theories of what intelligence is How is Intelligence Measured?  Most current test  The Wechsler Scales o WAIS –III  Used to measure IQ in adults -> psychologists use only o WISC – IV  Used to measure IQ in children -> only psychologists can use it o Tests include both verbal and nonverbal (performance) measures Intelligence is a stable trait?  Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70)  Many children show fluctuations o Increase or decrease; not random o Environment important CHYS 1F90 Lecture 4 Sept. 27, 2012 What do IQ scores predict?  Scholastic achievement o .50 correlation with future grades  Vocational outcome o Occupation o Education Factors that influence IQ  Evidence for heredity o Twin studies  Identical twins’ IQ correlated more than fraternal o Adoption studies  Adopted children’s IQ s resemble biological parents more than adopted parents Intelligence is a stable trait? R.Raby Cameo Lecture  IQ and self-regulated learning o Reminder: a socio-cultural perspective prioritizes importance of culture, social relations, social structure, social inequality  IQ as culturally specific o E.g. Kpelle in Liberia  Given a series of pictures -> need to determine which go together (e.g. orange, cherry, knife)  Diverse cultural traits o Categories o Time o Games o Individual vs collective  Concept, style and content of IQ testing commonly reflects a Western cultural context  Class-based differences o E.g. Basil Bernstein: private vs. public speech o Hart and Risley: learning at home  45 million words (Talking, reading to them, etc)  26 million words – middle class  13 million words – higher class o Socio-economic inequality is relevant to the skills to do with learning  IQ tests not benign o Linked to labeling and discrimination CHYS 1F90 Lecture 4 Sept. 27, 2012 o Stereotype threat  IQ testing is not neutral but has been used to justify and perpetuate social stratification  Self-regulated learning o Downplaying discrimination o Embedded cultural values o Individualizing Early Learning – Cognition Piaget’s view  Intelligence is
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