Class Notes (834,386)
Canada (508,507)
Brock University (12,083)
CHYS 2P10 (161)
Anthony Volk (136)
Lecture 2

lecture 2.docx

11 Pages
91 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Anthony Volk
Semester
Winter

Description
Today's Lecture - Review seminar structure Lecture 2 Seminars - The basic structure of the seminars revolves around debates - Debates are a good way to critical examine issues related to the course - Debate topics will be posted that correspond to topics covered in lectures as a way of building on lectures - During seminars, students will individually (or sometimes in pairs) debate for or against a given topic - These debates must be based on scientific evidence, some of which will be provided for you, some of which you'll need to find on your own - These debates will also lead to a paper on the topic you debate that includes responses to questions from the class and arguments from your opponent - I expect to see improvements in the paper vs. the debate - Paper formatting is very important in order for it to be universally fair - Debates will be evaluated by the TAs/myself and by your peers - Peer grade will be the class average - Good evaluations are also part of your grade- they are you seminar participation component Nature/Nurture - in practical examples they are equally important - for political and practical reasons nurture often gets more attention Margaret Mead “We also recognized that there were dangers in such a formulation…We knew how politically loaded discussions of inborn differences could become; we knew that the Russians had abandoned their experiment in rearing identical twins when it was found that, even reared under different circumstances, they displayed astonishing likeness. By then [1935] it seemed clear to us that the further study of inborn differences would have to wait for less troubled times.” Dr. Sigmund Freud 6 May 1856 - 23 September 1939 Three Components of Personality - the id represents the basic urges - the ego represents the rational component of the mind - the superego represents the conscience, morality - there is a conflict with the ego trig to control the id and the superego tries to make sure that fits one's morals - the two basic urges that Freud identified were: sex and aggression Freudian Stages - Freud believed that development progressed through different stages - Stages were universal in existence and in their order - Success in a stage was not required for passing on to a later stage - Changes in one's environment and maturation leads to stage progression Freud's Contributions - he determined that what happens to you when you are young effects who you are in the future, as an adult - found out that we have conflicting emotions and internal conflicts - the importance of the unconscious Erik Erikson He studied combat soldiers, child-rearing amongst the Sioux and Yurok, play in normal and abnormal children, adolescent identity, popular culture and adolescents, and social behaviour in India. - he studied a broader population - among the first to look at children and base his theory on his observations General Theory - Erikson believed in psychosocial, rather than psychosexual, forces - Believe in stages, but added adult stages to Freud's five childhood stages - Placed a much stronger influence on culture than Freud - Believed in epigenesis (creating from yourself) as the core of development - Like Freud, the theories are sequential, but they do not build directly from previous stages - Therefore, it is possible to pass on to a new stage even if a current stage is poorly resolved - Can return to a stage at a later date if needed to complete/repair the stage - Placed a strong emphasis on identity development as an ongoing process throughout development (rather than personality) - Added direct observation of children, cross-cultural comparisons, and psychobiographies to psychoanalytic methods Trust - Mistrust (0-1) …whether or not the child can rely on the caregiver - During this stage, the infant learns whether or not they can rely on another human being(s), typically the mother - If the mother is responsive, the child learns to trust - If the mother is unresponsive, the child learns not to trust in others Autonomy - Shame (2-3) …whether or not the child learns to do things on their own - The child learns that whether or not they can act independently from others - If parents are firm but supportive, the child learns that they can initiate their own behaviours - If the parents are too strict, or too lenient, the child learns that they can't initiate behaviour or that it doesn't matter Initiative - Guilt (4-5) …whether or not the child can branch out into the world on their own - Having developed a sense (good or bad) of initiative, the child learns whether or not they are capable of doing things on their own - If the child learns that they can succeed, they develop initiative (role-models) - If they fail, they develop guilt - Develop role models during this stage Industry - Inferiority (6-13) …whether or not the child learns how to apply themselves - The child learns whether their work is competent compared to other children - If they succeed in school, sports, art, etc. they develop a sense of industry in that area (i.e., work pays off) - If they fail relative to peers, they develop a sense of inferiority Identity - Identity Diffusion (Adolescence) …whether or not the individual experiments with, and develops their identity - During this stage, the individual either successfully develops an identity, or fails to do so - A teenager needs to a) explore identities and then b) commit to an identity to succeed in this stage - Failure to do so results in stagnation, confusion, or settling for the wrong ID Intimacy - Isolation (Young Adults) …whether or not the individual develops an intimate relationship - The young adult learns whether they can share their life with another(s) or whether they are alone - To succeed, they need to be able to open themselves up to others- typically a partner, but can be close friends - If they fail to open themselves to another, they fail this stage Generativity - Stagnation (Adult) …whether or not the individual feels as though their life is meaningful - The adult learns whether they are contributing anything meaningful, or whether their life lacks meaning - If they feel like they are contributing to the world, they pass the stage - If they feel like their life's work (parent, job, spouse) is meaningless, they fail the stage Integrity - Despair (Old Age) …whether or not you are happy with the way your life turned out - The individual learns whether or not they can accept their life as being generally positive - If they can, they belief their life had meaning, purpose, and mistakes were unfortunate but accepted - If they can't, they feel like their life has been wasted or missed out Learning Theory - The text breaks this chapter into two “behavioural” theories Pure behaviourism: promoted most famously by Skinner- everything other than behaviour is rubbish Social behaviourism: tempered by the individual and environment- behaviour works with and through them (Bandura) Operant Conditioning - “All we need to know in order to describe and explain behaviour is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur, and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur." (Skinner, 1953) - In operant conditioning, (sometimes known as instrumental conditioning) an operant response is a behaviour that operates on the environment to produce an ef
More Less

Related notes for CHYS 2P10

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit