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Lecture 2

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Child and Youth Studies
Anthony Volk

Today's Lecture - Review seminar structure Lecture 2 Seminars - The basic structure of the seminars revolves around debates - Debates are a good way to critical examine issues related to the course - Debate topics will be posted that correspond to topics covered in lectures as a way of building on lectures - During seminars, students will individually (or sometimes in pairs) debate for or against a given topic - These debates must be based on scientific evidence, some of which will be provided for you, some of which you'll need to find on your own - These debates will also lead to a paper on the topic you debate that includes responses to questions from the class and arguments from your opponent - I expect to see improvements in the paper vs. the debate - Paper formatting is very important in order for it to be universally fair - Debates will be evaluated by the TAs/myself and by your peers - Peer grade will be the class average - Good evaluations are also part of your grade- they are you seminar participation component Nature/Nurture - in practical examples they are equally important - for political and practical reasons nurture often gets more attention Margaret Mead “We also recognized that there were dangers in such a formulation…We knew how politically loaded discussions of inborn differences could become; we knew that the Russians had abandoned their experiment in rearing identical twins when it was found that, even reared under different circumstances, they displayed astonishing likeness. By then [1935] it seemed clear to us that the further study of inborn differences would have to wait for less troubled times.” Dr. Sigmund Freud 6 May 1856 - 23 September 1939 Three Components of Personality - the id represents the basic urges - the ego represents the rational component of the mind - the superego represents the conscience, morality - there is a conflict with the ego trig to control the id and the superego tries to make sure that fits one's morals - the two basic urges that Freud identified were: sex and aggression Freudian Stages - Freud believed that development progressed through different stages - Stages were universal in existence and in their order - Success in a stage was not required for passing on to a later stage - Changes in one's environment and maturation leads to stage progression Freud's Contributions - he determined that what happens to you when you are young effects who you are in the future, as an adult - found out that we have conflicting emotions and internal conflicts - the importance of the unconscious Erik Erikson He studied combat soldiers, child-rearing amongst the Sioux and Yurok, play in normal and abnormal children, adolescent identity, popular culture and adolescents, and social behaviour in India. - he studied a broader population - among the first to look at children and base his theory on his observations General Theory - Erikson believed in psychosocial, rather than psychosexual, forces - Believe in stages, but added adult stages to Freud's five childhood stages - Placed a much stronger influence on culture than Freud - Believed in epigenesis (creating from yourself) as the core of development - Like Freud, the theories are sequential, but they do not build directly from previous stages - Therefore, it is possible to pass on to a new stage even if a current stage is poorly resolved - Can return to a stage at a later date if needed to complete/repair the stage - Placed a strong emphasis on identity development as an ongoing process throughout development (rather than personality) - Added direct observation of children, cross-cultural comparisons, and psychobiographies to psychoanalytic methods Trust - Mistrust (0-1) …whether or not the child can rely on the caregiver - During this stage, the infant learns whether or not they can rely on another human being(s), typically the mother - If the mother is responsive, the child learns to trust - If the mother is unresponsive, the child learns not to trust in others Autonomy - Shame (2-3) …whether or not the child learns to do things on their own - The child learns that whether or not they can act independently from others - If parents are firm but supportive, the child learns that they can initiate their own behaviours - If the parents are too strict, or too lenient, the child learns that they can't initiate behaviour or that it doesn't matter Initiative - Guilt (4-5) …whether or not the child can branch out into the world on their own - Having developed a sense (good or bad) of initiative, the child learns whether or not they are capable of doing things on their own - If the child learns that they can succeed, they develop initiative (role-models) - If they fail, they develop guilt - Develop role models during this stage Industry - Inferiority (6-13) …whether or not the child learns how to apply themselves - The child learns whether their work is competent compared to other children - If they succeed in school, sports, art, etc. they develop a sense of industry in that area (i.e., work pays off) - If they fail relative to peers, they develop a sense of inferiority Identity - Identity Diffusion (Adolescence) …whether or not the individual experiments with, and develops their identity - During this stage, the individual either successfully develops an identity, or fails to do so - A teenager needs to a) explore identities and then b) commit to an identity to succeed in this stage - Failure to do so results in stagnation, confusion, or settling for the wrong ID Intimacy - Isolation (Young Adults) …whether or not the individual develops an intimate relationship - The young adult learns whether they can share their life with another(s) or whether they are alone - To succeed, they need to be able to open themselves up to others- typically a partner, but can be close friends - If they fail to open themselves to another, they fail this stage Generativity - Stagnation (Adult) …whether or not the individual feels as though their life is meaningful - The adult learns whether they are contributing anything meaningful, or whether their life lacks meaning - If they feel like they are contributing to the world, they pass the stage - If they feel like their life's work (parent, job, spouse) is meaningless, they fail the stage Integrity - Despair (Old Age) …whether or not you are happy with the way your life turned out - The individual learns whether or not they can accept their life as being generally positive - If they can, they belief their life had meaning, purpose, and mistakes were unfortunate but accepted - If they can't, they feel like their life has been wasted or missed out Learning Theory - The text breaks this chapter into two “behavioural” theories Pure behaviourism: promoted most famously by Skinner- everything other than behaviour is rubbish Social behaviourism: tempered by the individual and environment- behaviour works with and through them (Bandura) Operant Conditioning - “All we need to know in order to describe and explain behaviour is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur, and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur." (Skinner, 1953) - In operant conditioning, (sometimes known as instrumental conditioning) an operant response is a behaviour that operates on the environment to produce an ef
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