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Child and Youth Studies
Anthony Volk

CHYS 2P10 Lecture 10 March 26th, 2014 Aggression and Altruism Aggression: - Aggression is found amongst all kinds of animals - Recently, aggression as been viewed as not purely maladaptive - Aggression has functional benefits to those who use it Yanomamo Man With Bow: Yanomamo Toddler With Bow: Yanomamo Unokais: Delinquent Behavior: - Asignificant proportion of delinquent behavior is thought to be caused by adolescents - Moffitt suggests that delinquency may be the result of late teens trying to enter the world of adults by committing adult acts - Harris suggests that delinquency is the result of trying to establish an identity uinque from mainstream adult society - Having sex, drinking alcohol, teenagers do this because they think these are adult like activities- But they do this also because they want to differentiate adult world (you don’t see adults partying with keggers) YMS: - Daly & Wilson believe that it is YMS, or Young Male Syndrome - Young men compete with each other to gain status - Status allows men to get more/better mates - Status plays a big part in situations (spills beer on another guy, guy kills him) - It’s comforting to know that you have a buddy who dominates the other - Man take part in 18-24 because their trying to meet a partner - They want women to know they can be tough and have this status of being dominant - Always a showing off status for men - If you don’t have status- you don’t attracts a high quality mate Poverty and Violence: - Victims are almost always other men - homicide tend to be young men - Income and equality-higher level of income- higher homicide rates Developmental Trajectory ofAggression: - Aggression peaks in the early preschool/JK years - As children get older, physical aggression decreases compared to other forms - Transition to middle school is an important source of renewed conflict - Children can’t control their impulses when they get angry - toddler aggression isn’t going to seriously hurt the other toddler - Consequences are less severe- as you get older, cost of physical aggression arises - Social aggression: boys and girls are at the same level (safer form) Aggression Development: - Aggression is not the first tool of choice for some people - Children who are aggressive in early kindergarten can affect the future- children learn at this age not to be aggressive Social Processing &Aggression: - People who do this have poor social cognition - Information processing of social content - Dodge suggests a seven-step sequential model - Skipping a step results in maladaptive social behavior - Better social information processing correlated with better social skills in children in K-2 - Figure 14.7: Dodge’s Social Information Processing Model Social Processing &Aggression: - In the s.p. model, compared to non-aggressive children, aggressive children are: - Less likely to encode social cues; more likely to encode aggressive cues - More likely to interpret ambiguous cues as having aggressive intent & respond with socially inappropriate responses - Difficulty inhibiting aggressive responses Functions ofAggression: - Dominance - Social power - Sexual Coercion - Defensive - defending yourself from someone else - Sadistic - you see this is children rarely Adolescent Conflict - Bullying: - Bullying may be defined as: “as a relationship problem characterized by an imbalance of power whereby a more powerful individual repeatedly causes harm to a weaker individual” -Olweus - Bullying is found throughout all age groups - Evidence for bullying in every culture - Social bullying - isolating/depriving - may not be physical but still aggression Bullying In Canada: - Children will admit that they have bullied someone before - also children say they are the victims Victimization and Age: - Younger children - Grade 9 (girls and boy) shuffling of the dominance hierarchy - “who’s the new alpha at the school” Signs of Being a Bully: Little concern for others’feelings - Does not recognize impact of his/her behaviour on others Aggressive with siblings, parents, teachers, friends, and animals Bossy and manipulative to get own way - Possessing unexplained objects and/or extra money - Secretive about possessions, activities, and whereabouts - Holds a positive attitude towards aggression - Easily frustrated and quick to anger Bullying Myths: - Bullies are not stereotypically lonely, dumb, cowardly, or from broken homes - Bully-victims are; pure bullies are average or higher on: social skills, intelligence, physical size and health, mental health, and feelings of high self-esteem Why Bully? - This is the $1,000,000 question because generally speaking, bullies are average in social skills and mental health - There is a reason why they do this: - To get stuff - (Ipad, soccer field, money) - To get dates (get sex) - To get popularity (liked more than others, social power - good way to get it) Does it Work? - Yes - Bullies do get access to more resources - They also date more often and start dating at a younger age - Bullies are rated as significantly more popular than average children - Bullies tend to get into significantly more trouble (inside and outside of school) - Bullies relationships tend to be more violent (less satisfactory?) - Bullies are significantly less liked than average children - In essence, it’s a short-term strategy How Can We Stop Bullies? - Increased monitoring - Increased punishment - Increase bystander involvement - Increase incentives for not using bullying (e.g., teaching them prosocial skills that work as well or better) - As soon as they took the break off- it shot right back up - you learn it by watching it - monitoring and punishment is effective if they are seriously put in place What Doesn’t Work? - Zero-tolerance policies - Bully and victim mediation - Peer mediation - Short-term policies - Localizing policies - Relying on victims to fight back Signs of Victimization - Not wanting to go to school or participate in extra-curricular activities - Anxious, fearful, over-reactive - Exhibits low self-esteem and makes negative comments about him/herself - Headaches and stomach aches without obvious cause - Lower interest and performance in school - Bullies look for children who are vulnerable - Loses things, needs money, reports being hungry after school - Injuries, bruising, damaged clothing, broken things - Unhappy, irritable, little interest in activities - Trouble sleeping, nightmares, bedwetting - Expresses threats to hurt himself/herself or others Victimization - Only benefit is sometimes remaining as part of a group - Otherwise victimization is associated with a long list of risk factor
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