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Lecture 6

lecture 6.doc

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Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Anthony Volk

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CHYS 2P10 Child Development Lecture 6 – Intelligence Dr. Tony Volk [email protected] Course Business • Labs continue • Can view exams by emailing Jo-Anne What is Intelligence? • Psychometric Views – Psychometric approach • Intelligence is a trait or set of traits on which individuals differ – Early Binet-Simon test • Mental age Mental Age • To determine intelligence, they sought to examine items that were correlated with high teacher ratings • From this they developed the Binet-Simon test of intelligence, which gave a score in terms of the child’s mental level (also referred to as mental age) I.Q. • These tests were eventually modified in the U.S.A. to become the Stanford-Binet test • This test reported test scores in terms of intelligent quotient (IQ), which was a function of the mental age of the child divided by their actual physical age • Adult version is the WAIS-III, child version is the WISC-III How is Intelligence Measured? • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale – Intelligence Quotient calculated as IQ = Mental Age/Chronological Age *100, but all modern tests now use Deviation IQs • The Wechsler Scales – WPPSI – III – WISC – IV – Tests include both verbal and nonverbal (performance) measures I.Q. • While the results from these tests no longer measure the relative mental age vs. physical age, their score is still reported as IQ • IQ now means the relative performance of an individual compared to the average results (although for children, it still has an age component) • These tests were eventually modified in the U.S.A. to become the Stanford-Binet test • This test reported test scores in terms of intelligent quotient (IQ), which was a function of the mental age of the child divided by their actual physical age • Adult version is the WAIS-III, child version is the WISC-III What is Intelligence? • Factor Analysis: one or many abilities? – Analysis of multiple tasks • Factors identified: items that are highly correlated – Spearman’s g – Thurstone’s primary mental abilities • Later factor analytic models – Guilford’s structure-of-intellect model – Cattell and Horn • Fluid Intelligence • Crystallized Intelligence General Intelligence • Sir Francis Gelton believed that intelligence was based on biological differences in the speed of neural conduction • He attempted to determine if there was a link between intelligence and the speed of sensory processes (using basic instruments!), but he did not find any significant correlation Spearman’s g • Charles Spearman developed factor analysis to determine if there was a general intelligence that underlay performance in the different forms of Binet’s tests • He found that two factors influenced performance on these tests: general intelligence (g) and specific intelligence (s) Specific vs. General Intelligence • Specific intelligence referred to skills that applied directly to the problem being solved (e.g., knowing how a specific calculation) • General intelligence was a factor that correlated positively with the results of all of the tests (similar to Galton’s idea of general intelligence) Fluid & Crystal g • Cattell further developed this idea by breaking g intofg (general fluid intelligence) and c (general crystal intelligence) • Fluid intelligence is a general mental ability that could be adapted to any use, while crystallized intelligence refers to previous experience/learning • Fluid intelligence is most directly helpful in unfamiliar testing situations • The opposite is true for crystallized intelligence • Fluid intelligence appears to pear during the early 20’s, whereas crystallized intelligence peaks at around age 50 What Is g? • Mental speed and working memory have both been raised as possible basis of g • Individuals with high IQ scores typically also have faster responses to sensory events (faster sensory perception) • Speed of sensory perception also correlates well with fluid g, although not as well with crystallized g • The digit span of working memory also tends to be greater in individuals who score high on IQ tests • These results suggest that an overall ability to process a lot of information quickly in the conscious mind is related to intelligence in general, and fluid intelligence in particular What is Intelligence? • Hierarchical Models – Intelligence consists of • A general ability factor • Specialized ability factors – Carroll’s three-stratum theory of intelligence • Information-Processing Perspective – Sternberg’s triarchic theory • Context, experience, information-processing skills • Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences – At least 7 kinds of intelligence (8? 9?) – independent Table 10.6: The Criteria for Being an Intelligence Table 10.7: Some Differences Between a Traditional Classroom and One Based on MI How is Intelligence Measured? • The K-ABC • The Bayley Scales of Infant Development
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