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CHYS2P10: Intelligence Lecture Nov 6th

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Child and Youth Studies
Lauren Mc Namara

What is intelligence?  Stereotypes: read a lot, wear glasses, things come easy to them, or is it because they are persistent and determined  Thought to be a stable trait  A capacity  Many theories of what intelligence is…  Psychometric Views o Intelligence is a trait or set of traits on which individuals differ o Mental age  MA typically matches chronological age – became an expectation for each age.  However…  E.g child may have MA of 10 but a reading age of 7  Other theories  Spearman‟s g – could identify a general ability – identify specific abilities (they were independent)  Thurstone‟s primary mental abilities  Guildfords structure of intellect model  Cattel and Horn o Fluid intelligence – to solve a persons problems that have not been taught (biological) o Crystallized intelligence – something that was learned (physics, etc.)  Sternbergs triarchic theory o Context, experience, information processing skills o Someone who can successfully adapt to their environment – street smarts  Gardners o At least 7 kinds of intelligence o Independent  Linguistic  Spatial  Logical mathematical  Musical  Body-kinesthetic  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Naturalist  Spiritual  Most current test o The Wechsler Scales  WAIS – III  WISC – IV  Tests include both verbal and nonverbal (performance) measures  Verbal Items:  Rearrange the following letters to make a word and choose the category in which it fits  RAPETEKA – parakeet  A) City  B) Fruit  C) Bird  D) Vegetable How is intelligence measured?  How stable are IQ scores across childhood? o Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70)  But this was large group  Does not mean that individual scores are stable  Studies show many children show fluctuations o IQ not a relfection of absolute potential o Performance, rather than capacity o Increase or decrease, not random  Environment important  What do IQ scores predict?  Scholastic achievement o .50 correlation with future grades o Made up of school based items  Vocational outcome o Occupation  Professionals/white collars consistently score higher  Link between IQ and education  IQ made up of school based items  Correlation between higher IQ‟s in university o Education  The gifted  The mentally retarded (disabled) Factors that influence IQ  Evidence for heredity  Twin studies  Identical twins IQ correlated more than fraternal Social and cultural correlates  The home environment  Some risk factors for low IQ scores  Mother did not complete highschool  Family has four or more children  Father is absent from family  Family experience many stresses  Parents have rigid child-rearing values  Mother has poor mental health (depression, anxiety)  Engagement – how the parents engage with the children – hard to do when all of these risk factors are present Group differences  Environmental hypothesis  Low income families may be particularly at risk o Malnourishment o Caregivers under stress o Fewer age appropriate toys, books Giftedness  Students with extraordinary abilities and skills  Well in advance of developmental norms  Sometimes specific  Sometimes general  Reflected in high ability or IQ scores Intellectual Disabilities  Significantly below average general cognitive abilities  As measured on intelligence assessments (below 70 IQ)  Very slow rate of learning  May be moderate to severe Types  Down syndrome  Abnormality on chromosome 21 – trisomy (three instead of two ch21)  Associated with maternal age  Co-morbid with health problems (organ failure, heart problems) Types: Genetic  Fragile X syndrome  Abnormality on the x chromosome (inherited by parents through DNA)  Characterized by: o Intellectual impairment (problem solving more than language) o Attention problems o Hyperactivity o Hand-flapping and hand-biting o Enlarged ears and testicles Language Acquisition Talking….all day JK/SK  The amount of mother‟s (or caregiver‟s) talk  Correlates with children‟s vocabulary growth and literacy skills  Amount of speech heard at age18 months correlated with amount of speech heard at 3 years  More talk during mundane activities (changing, feeding, etc)  Correlated with vocabulary test and reading comprehension scores in grade three Connections  The amount of teacher‟s talk o Encouraging, questioning, guiding, scaffolding o Development of language provides foundation for cognitive growth o Correlated with childrens scores, verbal and general  Vocabulary size o Correlated highly with IQ  Kindergarten early literacy measures  Shown to predict academic performance grades 1-3  Grade 3 achievement associated with high school achievement (language and cognitive) Communication/Language  thinking /learning o Language is the medium for thinking and earning o The transaction between mind and environment o Early years: educational outcomes in adolescenece correlated with academic skills at school entry o Skills at school entry traced to preschool experiences o Even: preschool general cognitive ability predicts highschool outcomes and lifelong educational attainments Language acquisition is robust…  Very similar development across (nearly all) cultures  1st words between 10-15 months  Then morphology (eg shoe + s = shoes; walk +ed = walked)  Words act as building blocks to larger phrases  Exponential growth in words  Average 9 new words a day  At 3, full sentences are normal  At 4, 5 master fundamental aspects of grammar (prepositions) What about delays and disabilities?  Difficulties diagnosing language impairment at early age  Did they grow out of it or?  50% of late talkers caught up by age 3  Another 25% caught up by grade 1 (even without intervention)  Those with specific impairments (7%) have history delay Who will likely outgrow their limitations?  Those who use gestures to communicate  Those whose family members do not have language difficulties as well Should we intervene? Often just need more talking (they will talk to themselves more) Formal interventions do more good than harm - Prevents negative chain of events( foundations, social, academic, stress, family, frustration) - Can keep gap reasonable – too much delay and may never close the gap - Need to be sensitive to labeling - Affects how others perceive them - How they perceive themselves What components are time sensitive?  Smaller parts (eg eat)
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