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Lecture 11


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Child and Youth Studies
Lauren Mc Namara

1 CHYS 2P10 LECTURE ELEVEN: Aggression and Bullying November 20, 2012 - The development of aggression - Atypical Behavioural Development - Altruism: development of the prosocial self - Moral development: affective, cognitive and behavioural components - Theories of moral development (Not on Exam) THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGGRESSION AGGRESSION - Range of behaviour that result in both physical and psychological harm to oneself, other or objects in the environment - Behaviour with the intent to harm - Types of Aggression: o Hostile aggression  Goal is to harm victim o Instrumental aggression  Harm is means to an end (access to objects, space or privileges) - Aggression is a fairly stable attribute o High levels of aggression in toddlerhood predict delinquency in adulthood - Why is it stable? o Genetic dispositions o Parenting influences o Coercive home environments  Negative reinforcements  Corporal punishments, home that are not warm or fuzzy o Cultural influences  Societies differ in aggressiveness AGGRESSION AND BULLYING - BULLYING: unwanted, aggressive behaviour among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance - Often consistent - 17% are bullied and 19% bully ( 6% do both) - Boys are physically bulled; girls are verbally bullied (Relational bullies) - Children with exceptionalities are more likely to be victimized o Gifted children, children with learning disabilities experience more victimization their peers o Obese children experience more victimization than their average weight peers RELATIONAL AGGRESSION - Using the removal, or threat of the removal, of a relationship as the vehicle of harm o Spreading malicious lies, gossip, secrets o Ignoring, silent treatment o Exclusion o Predominantly girls - Associated with maladaptive problems o Internalizing symptoms  Depression, anxiety, self harm - Relational aggression can increase with development o Girls only o Children acquire more social skills o Spend more time with close friends  Intimate friendships 2  Relational aggression against romantic relationships o Monitor the context of their friendships TYPES OF BULLYING (PREVNET.CA) - Physical bullying o Hitting, kicking, shoving, spitting, beating up, stealing and damaging property - Verbal bullying o Name calling, mocking, hurtful teasing, humiliating or threatening someone, racist comments or secual harassment  Name callng is the most frequent type of verbal bullying  Negative comments about appearance, intellectual capacity , sexuality and personality  Frequent use of expletives - Social bullying o Eye rolling, turning away from someone, excluding others from the group, gossiping or spreading rumours, setting others up to look foolish, damaging friendships - Electronic bullying o Includes the use of email, cell phones, text messages and internet sites to threaten, harass, embarrass, socially exclude or damage reputations and friendships - Racial bullying o Treating people disrespectfully because of their racial or ethic background o Insulting cultural background o Racist names o Telling racist jokes - Religious bullying o Insulting religious background or beliefs o Saying bad things about a religious background or belief - Sexual bullying o Leaving someone out or treating him or her disrespectfully because of their gender o Making sexist comments or jokes o Unwanted touching, pinching or grabbing in a sexual way o Making crude comments about someone’s sexual behaviour o Spreading a sexual rumour about someone o Calling someone gay, a fag, a dyke or making inferences about their sexual orientation o Sexual Minority (LGBTQ) experience more unwanted personal advances, public harassment and ridicule than their heterosexual peers rules-in-case-that-began-in-the-1990s/ “discriminated against a severely learning disabled boy by not doing enough to give him the help he needed” Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Article 2(2) states that children’s rights entitle them to protection from, “all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.” • Article 19(1) states that children’s rights entitle them to protection from, “all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.” PREVNET - Association between a positive school climate low levels of bullying and aggression - Warm relationships - Consistent high standards for behaviour - No evidence linking Zero Tolerance and punitive discipline strategies with reductions in bullying - Suspensions and expulsions from school often engender feelings of mistrust and a negative school climate 3 - Children involved in bullying often have poor relationships with their teachers o Little or no warmth, caring or positive feelings ALTRUISM - Selfless concern for the welfare of others o Expressed through prosocial acts o Prosocial: any action intended to benefit another  Sharing, cooperating, assisting, comforting, complimenting - Early prosocial behaviour o Toddlers begin showing sympathy/compassion (i.e. Sharing toys) - Altruistic behaviour increases in school years o Link between perspective-taking and altruism - Social-cognitive and affective contributors: o Well developed role-taking skills = More compassionate o Training children increases compassion, empathy  Modeling, making thinking visible o Empathy leads to awareness  Ability to experience others’ emotions - Cultural influences on altruism o Individualist vs. collectivist societies o Level of industrialization  Least individual (Kenya, Mexico)= more altruistic/less violence  Expectation/obligation: give for the greater good  Large families, everyone contributes  Preparing food, caring for young and old  In more industrial societies (US, Okinawa)  Emphasis/praise on competition, individual goals  Those who contribute to family responsibilities rather self care - Social influences o How to make altruism a norm of social responsibility? o Reinforcing, praising, modeling and practicing prosocial behaviours Practice Questions FROM CHAPTER 12: - In 6 detailed sentences, explain attachment theory. - What role does temperament play in attachment theory? - Why might attachment affect a child’s developmental path, or predict later outcomes? FROM CHAPTER 15: - Explain aggression from an interactive perspective. - Explain how a secure attachment can mediate the development of aggression. - The link between empathy and altruism gets stronger as children get older. Can you explain why this happens? Justify/reference. FINAL EXAM - Short answer - Level of detail, organization, thoughtfulness, use of scholarly examples - 10-15 questions - Work on practice questions – they are similar in content to the questions that will be on the exam - Open notes, text - References required - Cite specific in-text studies/author where possible - Avoid citing “personal communication” - See you next week… 4 THE FAMILY CHAPTER 16 UNDERSTANDING THE FAMILY - The family is a social system o Most important function is to socialize children - Family is a network of reciprocal relationships o
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