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Lecture 7

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Child and Youth Studies
Lauren Mc Namara

Intelligence  Thought to be a stable trait  A capacity  Many theories of what intelligence is…  Psychometric views - intelligence is a trait or set of traits on which individuals differ - there is one global ability/capacity that we are all born with and can be measured - mental age - MA typically matches Chronological age - However … - Example: child may have MA of 10 but a reading age of 7  Other theories:  Spearman’s g  found that he could identify a general attitude that seems to effect, he found he could identify specific abilities that were independent of that general ability  Thurtone’s primary mental abilities  Guilford’s structure of intellect model  Cattell and Horn  decided we could have two intelligences 1. Fluid: referred to an ability to solve problems that have not been taught 2. Crystalized: something that was learned, you were not born with it Information Processing Perspective:  adapting to environment, and shaping it so that its easier for them to adapt  Sternberg’s triarchic theory  Gardner’s: At least 7 kinds of intelligence, independent - each intelligence is tied to a different type of the brain  Linguistic, spatial, logical-mathematical, musical, body- kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, spiritual?  Most current test is: The Wechsler Scales  Tests include both verbal and nonverbal performance measures  One question would be to rearrange scrambled letters to make a word and then chose a category  The first IQ test in the world was developed by:  General knowledge questions like: how many weeks in a year, which number comes next in a series, How stable are IQ scores across childhood?  Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18  But this was with a large group  This does not mean that individual scores are stable  Studies show many children show fluctuations  IQ not a reflection of absolute potential  Performance, rather then capacity  Increase or decrease; not random (environment important) IQ Scores predict …  Scholastic achievement: .50 correlation with future grades, made up of school based items  Vocational outcome: occupation – professionals/white collar consistently score higher, link between iq and education  Education  The Gifted genius, high range - score well in advance of any kind of developmental norm - extraordinary abilities/skills - sometimes specific, sometimes specific (might score very high in one area, and very low in another) - reflected in high ability or IQ scores  The mentally retarded  below average cognitive abilities - as measured on intelligence assessments, below 70 IQ - very slow rate of learning, may be moderate to severe  Binet was originally after finding children who were not able to learn at pace of others. If he could identify them then he could create specific learning materials that would help them catch up and stay caught up. Factors that influence IQ scores  Evidence for heredity  Twin studies; identical twins IQ’s tend to correlate more than fraternal twins Social and Cultural Correlates  Home environment: children seem to be correlated according to certain aspects from the home environment  Some risk factors for low IQ scores: - Mother did not complete high school - Family has four or more children - Father is absent from family - Family experience many stresses - Parents have rigid child-rearing values - Mother has poor mental health Group Differences Environmental hypothesis:  Low income families may be at risk  Malnourishment  Caregivers under stress  Fewer age appropriate toys, books Types- Genetic  Down Syndrome: abnormality on chromosome 21 – trisomy (three instead of two ch21), associated with maternal age  Fragile X syndrome: abnormality on the x chromosome inherited by parents through DNA. - Characterized by intellectual impairment, attention problems, hyperactivity, hand flapping, hand biting, enlarged ears and testicles  Prader Willi Syndrome Language CHYS 2P10 Lecture 7 Taking all day JK/SK  The amount of mother’s (or caregiver’s) talk  Correlates with children’s vocabulary growth and literacy skills  Amount of speech heard at age18 months correlated with amount of speech heard at 3 years - more talk during mundane activities (changing, feeding, etc.)  Correlated with vocabulary test and reading comprehension scores in grade 3  Connections -The amount of teacher’s talk  Encouraging, questioning, guiding, scaffolding -Development of language provides foundation for cognitive Growth – correlated with children’s scores: verbal and general -Vocabulary size Correlated highly with IQ -Kindergarten early literacy measures  Shown to predict academic performance grades 1-3 -Grade 3 achievements associated with high school achievement (language and cognitive)  Language is the medium for thinking and learning  The transaction between mind and environment  Early years: educational outcomes in adolescence correlated with academic skills at school entry  Skills at school entry traced to Preschool experiences  Even: preschool general cognitive ability Predicts high school outcomes and lifelong educational attainments  Very similar development across (nearly all) cultures  1st words between 10-15 months  Then morphology (shoe + s = shoes)  Words act as building blocks to larger phrases  Exponential growth in words  Average 9 new words per day  At 3, full sentences are norm  At 4, 5 master fundamental aspects of grammar (prepositions, etc.) Delays and Disabilities:  Difficulties diagnosing language impairment at early age  Did they grow out of it or? Do they eventually catch up to their range? -50% of late talks caught up by age 3 -Another 25% caught up by grade 1 (even without intervention) -Those with specific impairments (7%) have history of delay  Who will likely outgrow their limitations? - those who use gestures to communicate - those whose family members do not have language difficulties as well  Should we intervene?  Often just need more talking, they will talk to themselves mroe  Formal interventions do more good then harm - don’t worry about putting a title to them, you want to find it before its too late, and before they are behind - Prevents negative chain of events (foundations, social, academic, stress, family, frustration) - can keep gap reasonable- to much delay and they may never close the gap or catch up What components are time sensitive? Morphological properties  Smaller parts, into bigger words (eat---eating), affects meaning  Late learners do not appear to develop aut
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