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Lecture 5

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Child and Youth Studies
Lauren Mc Namara

CHYS 2P10- Lecture 5 Chapter 7: Cognitive Development October 9 2012 Lecture Overview: - Piaget’s theory of cognitive development - Piaget’s stages of cognitive development - Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective Piaget 1896-1980: - Major force in how kids come to understand and learn - His dad was a professor in medieval literature … so this imprinted on him and made him a pretty smart kid - Zoologist - Published articles about mollusks at the age of 15 - Taught in Paris at a school run by Binet - It was while he was marking the tests that he got interested in kids understandings - He noticed that a lot of kids were consistently giving long answers, and the same kids were making the same mistakes that the older kids were not making. This led him to the fact that children’s cognitive learning is much different then that of adults and that there might possible be stages. - Pioneer of Constructivism - Genetic epistemology o Genetic = development o Epistemology = knowing, understanding Piaget’s Theory of Constructivism: - Ages and stages connects what children can and cannot understand at different ages - Describes when - Theory of development o Describes how children development these cognitive skills - Concerned with schools: "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual.” - Children are active learners and need to play, pretend and explore in order to construct their own knowledge Child as a Constructivist: - Using cognitive skills, a child constructs their own knowledge of the world - Surprise could frustrate and make children uncomfortable and this is a stage that learners want to get out of - All intellectual activity is undertaken to produce a balanced, harmonious, relationship between one’s thought processes and the environment “Intelligence/learning/living is a form of equilibrium...” - Cognition: - Activity of knowing and the mental processes used to acquire knowledge and solve problems… in order to reach equilibrium - To reach equilibrium Cognitive Development: - Changes that occur in cognitive skills and abilities over the course of life - Advancement of skills that allow us to reach equilibrium quicker and with more advanced environmental stimuli; trying to find a way to understand it Reaching Equilibrium: Cognitive equilibrium  new environmental stimuli  act of cognition  assimilation of new information  accommodation and regain cognitive equilibrium Example: doggie as a child is everything that has 4 legs and a tail … until they see a horse and a cat, and they see differences. And as they get older they start to make mental models and put labels on these animals to understand the differences between them. Piaget’s Theory: - Cognitive processes o Assimilation; putting everything together to understand  Interpret new experiences with existing schemes  Process of taking something in/absorbing new information where you start to create a mental model (like the concept map) o Accommodation; storing this knowledge and seeing different models  Modify existing schemes to interpret new experiences  Refine and have more then one model to understand differences  When one actually changes the scheme/model  According to Piaget children would categorize the differences based on traits and qualities of different things (example: dogs are big, cats are small, horses are tall and big, dogs and cats are small, etc.) o Organization  Rearranging existing schemes into more complex ones Limits to what a child can do… Cognitive Development: - The older the child is, the more advanced their cognitive processing is Piaget’s Stages: - Overview of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development o 1.Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) o 2.Preoperational (2 to 7 years) o 3.Concrete-Operational (7 to 11 years) o 4.Formal-Operational (11/12 years and beyond) Sensorimotor Stage (0-2): - “Curious, hands on everything toddler”; they want to put everything in their mouth, touch everything, etc. because they are curious and beginning their learning - Sensory inputs and motor capabilities become coordinated - Milestones in Sensorimotor Stage o Development of imitation; children begin copying parents and others around them … movements, motions, words, etc.  Deferred imitation emerges at 18-24 months  Example: a young child sees another child having a tantrum and then they go home and the child then does exactly what he just saw the other child doing (development of memory) o Development of Object Permanence -Things still exist even hidden from view Preoperational Stage (2-7): - “Contemplative, symbolic” gradual language development, and think symbolically - Use of symbols (thinking and language) increases o Preconceptual period  Symbolic function  Symbolic/pretend play (child pretends to be someone else - 2/3 year olds can start to use words to describe things and images to construct thoughts - can logically think through operations in one direction, and can pretend they are other people - pretend play is thought to enable social and emotional development - Animism: pre operational, because children have yet to develop scheme, and mental operation they need to think logically … he uses animism logic as an example; preschool kids tend to contribute life and life like property to animate life like objects - also thought they don't have operational schemes to develop other perspectives and points of view - Egocentrism as in three mountains problem - 2 different things going on either side of the mountain, and he wondered if one would predict that he was looking at the same thing as the other. - Young preoperational children are egocentric. They cannot easily assume another person’s perspective and often say that another child viewing the mountain from a different vantage point sees exactly what they see from their own location. Conservation: - Children in the pre-operational stage do not yet grasp the notion of conservation - kids in this stage cannot grasp notion of protection yet - example: he would lay out can
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