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Child and Youth Studies
John Mc Namara

CHYS 2P15 – J. McNamara Lecture Notes Nov 15 2013 Term paper due in 2 weeks- Friday November 29 th Both sections a and b together Cover sheet on sakai Submit to sakai 2 pages for each section (4 pages total) reference if needed (lectures and readings) no formal APA (ex. Referencing) guidelines on sakai Vulnerable Youth Todays topic will relate to us because we work with youth in our placement and it will relate to us because university is a stressful time.  Who are “vulnerable youth”?  What does vulnerable mean? Framed mostly around mental health  Mental Health Literacy – Depression – Anxiety – Schizophrenia – Bipolar – Eating disorders – Etc Vulnerable “Susceptible to injury / attack” Vulnerable people are susceptible to injury or attack (physical, or emotional injury) Think about a risk continuum- kids go through periods where they are more vulnerable to something then other periods where they are not vulnerable. This depends on things such as being alone or being in a peer group ect. Vulnerable  Researchers have repeatedly found that certain stressors during childhood and adolescence create challenges for healthy development into adulthood Stress isn’t bad but repeated exposure to stressors tend to make children vulnerable Kids don't know how to deal with stressors and there are symptoms that relate to stress such as nausea, a cold. If you've found a kid that's stressed how do you alleviate that stress – History of abuse – Unstable home environment – Temperament – Mental health Children and Youth Mental Health  Depression  Anxiety  Schizophrenia  Bipolar  Eating disorders  Etc Children and youth mental health  One in five Ontarians under 19 has a mental health disorder this lends itself to being categorical. Disorder lends itself to “yes I have a disorder” instead think of it as one in five kids under 19 feel a sense of disorder at some point in their life  530,000 children with mental health issues – 300,000 have more than one disorder mental health is a systems problem not the problem of a child. Therefor it is the systems responsibility to fix mental health disorders Mental health costs  Mental disorders are the 2 highest source of direct health care costs (hospitals, physicians, medicines) in Canada  The average cost of treating children’s mental health problems in community-based agencies is less than $2,500 per child per year.  The cost of a pediatric hospital bed is more than $2,500 per day.  Children whose mental health problems are untreated are bullied, bully other students, withdraw, abuse drugs & alcohol, engage in self-harming behaviours, drop out, etc. If we can suppost someone early the outcome can be good but leaving them untreated can lead to negative effects. This means that our focus needs to be on treatment of the children. Cost of mental health nd Suicide  Suicide is the 2 leading cause of death among 10-24 year olds (24% of all deaths) This is an undicussed issue however we need to focus on this.  Every day, 120 young people attempt suicide in Ontario; every week, on average, two or three succeed  Canada has the 3 worst suicide rate in the world for 15 to 19 year olds This is a particular issue. The most catastrophic issue related to mental heath. There is stigma associated with suicide and mental heath that we need to break through in order to understand and help them Impact on Families • Families are often completely unprepared for mental illness • This is where the support needs to start (with family) but families are ill prepared to deal with this. Families are well prepared to treat a broken bone because you take the kid to the er, gets a cast and the bone is mended. If a child develops something like bipolar disorder families don't know the steps to take to deal with these things. • The path from onset to acceptance of mental health difficulties in a child can be long and difficult. We have a lot of work to do as a society to deal with mental health. We are going to be the people who move and shake the system to move towards acceptance. • The diagnosis impacts the whole family Impact on Children and Youth In Canada, only 1 out of 5 children who need mental health services receives them The impact of undiagnosed and untreated mental illness: • Poor functioning at a critical developmental period • Children often fail to develop the social, functional and academic skills they need to succeed in life There is a real cost to not treating mental illness. This being said what we really need to move towards is prevention. Prevention This is not an adult issue. The onset of anxiety is at the age of 12. Anxiety can lead to a host of mental issues. Kids not know how to express and deal with anxiety effectively. We need to come up with treatments so that kids learn how to deal with anxiety. We need to catch kids young so that they don't grow up and develop more issues. Our society needs to become more literate in mental health and in mental heath prevention.  75% of 21 year olds with mental health problems had prior problems – Most report symptoms start before age 20  Average age for onset of anxiety disorders among Canadians is 12  Childhood mental illnesses compound if not treated – Become more vulnerable – By the time adulthood emerges – host of other problems (alcoholism, homelessness, etc). How do you prevent depression. We as a society need to move towards similar prevention
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