CHYS 2P15 – J. McNamara
Lecture Notes Nov 15 2013
Term paper due in 2 weeks- Friday November 29 th
Both sections a and b together
Cover sheet on sakai
Submit to sakai
2 pages for each section (4 pages total)
reference if needed (lectures and readings)
no formal APA (ex. Referencing)
guidelines on sakai
Todays topic will relate to us because we work with youth in our placement and it will
relate to us because university is a stressful time.
Who are “vulnerable youth”?
What does vulnerable mean?
Framed mostly around mental health
Mental Health Literacy
– Eating disorders
“Susceptible to injury / attack”
Vulnerable people are susceptible to injury or attack (physical, or emotional injury)
Think about a risk continuum- kids go through periods where they are more
vulnerable to something then other periods where they are not vulnerable. This
depends on things such as being alone or being in a peer group ect.
Researchers have repeatedly found that certain stressors during childhood and
adolescence create challenges for healthy development into adulthood
Stress isn’t bad but repeated exposure to stressors tend to make children vulnerable
Kids don't know how to deal with stressors and there are symptoms that relate to stress
such as nausea, a cold.
If you've found a kid that's stressed how do you alleviate that stress
– History of abuse
– Unstable home environment
– Mental health
Children and Youth Mental Health Depression
Children and youth mental health
One in five Ontarians under 19 has a mental health disorder
this lends itself to being categorical. Disorder lends itself to “yes I have a disorder”
instead think of it as one in five kids under 19 feel a sense of disorder at some point in
530,000 children with mental health issues
– 300,000 have more than one disorder
mental health is a systems problem not the problem of a child. Therefor it is the systems
responsibility to fix mental health disorders
Mental health costs
Mental disorders are the 2 highest source of direct health care costs (hospitals,
physicians, medicines) in Canada
The average cost of treating children’s mental health problems in community-based
agencies is less than $2,500 per child per year.
The cost of a pediatric hospital bed is more than $2,500 per day.
Children whose mental health problems are untreated are bullied, bully other
students, withdraw, abuse drugs & alcohol, engage in self-harming behaviours, drop
If we can suppost someone early the outcome can be good but leaving them untreated can
lead to negative effects. This means that our focus needs to be on treatment of the
Cost of mental health
Suicide is the 2 leading cause of death among 10-24 year olds (24% of all deaths)
This is an undicussed issue however we need to focus on this.
Every day, 120 young people attempt suicide in Ontario; every week, on average,
two or three succeed
Canada has the 3 worst suicide rate in the world for 15 to 19 year olds
This is a particular issue. The most catastrophic issue related to mental heath. There is
stigma associated with suicide and mental heath that we need to break through in order to
understand and help them
Impact on Families
• Families are often completely unprepared for mental illness
• This is where the support needs to start (with family) but families are ill prepared to
deal with this. Families are well prepared to treat a broken bone because you take
the kid to the er, gets a cast and the bone is mended. If a child develops something
like bipolar disorder families don't know the steps to take to deal with these things. • The path from onset to acceptance of mental health difficulties in a child can be
long and difficult.
We have a lot of work to do as a society to deal with mental health. We are going to be
the people who move and shake the system to move towards acceptance.
• The diagnosis impacts the whole family
Impact on Children and Youth
In Canada, only 1 out of 5 children who need mental health services receives them
The impact of undiagnosed and untreated mental illness:
• Poor functioning at a critical developmental period
• Children often fail to develop the social, functional and academic skills they need to
succeed in life
There is a real cost to not treating mental illness. This being said what we really need to
move towards is prevention.
This is not an adult issue. The onset of anxiety is at the age of 12. Anxiety can lead to a
host of mental issues. Kids not know how to express and deal with anxiety effectively.
We need to come up with treatments so that kids learn how to deal with anxiety. We need
to catch kids young so that they don't grow up and develop more issues. Our society
needs to become more literate in mental health and in mental heath prevention.
75% of 21 year olds with mental health problems had prior problems
– Most report symptoms start before age 20
Average age for onset of anxiety disorders among Canadians is 12
Childhood mental illnesses compound if not treated
– Become more vulnerable
– By the time adulthood emerges – host of other problems (alcoholism,
How do you prevent depression. We as a society need to move towards similar