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CHYS 2P35 - November 7

5 Pages

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

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CHYS 2P35 Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Chapter 9 November 7, 2013 What is attention • Allocation of cognitive resources to external or internal stimuli • Conscious process – consciously focusing your attention to a task • Unconscious – focusing on something without necessarily trying to • Different types of attention • Sustained attention • Constantly focusing on a task for a long period of time (10 minutes) • Continuous performance task – used to assess attention issues • Divided attention • Two or more tasks at the same time • Allocating your attentional resources to more than one task • Selective attention • Too many stimuli • Focusing all your attention to only one or two stimuli Attentional Networks (brain map from Posner, 2007) Prevalence • Boys usually diagnosed before girls • World wide prevalence is 5.2 % (Polanczyk et al., 2007) • Different networks in the brain that are responsible for different kinds of attention • Orienting, alerting and executive networks working together to make this attention happen Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Before age 7 • Problematic because symptoms generally start before age 7 but they can start before or after • More than just lack of attention that defines ADHD • Two or more settings • Home, class, school, etc. • Must understand that the symptoms are not happening just because of the situation • (More likely to fidget in school than out with friends) • Must be happening consistently between different settings • Significant impairment in social, school, or work functioning. • Has to interfere with the person’s life • Three cardinal features: Inattention, Hyperactivity / Impulsivity. • Inattentive type, Hyperactive/Impulsive type or a combination of the two • Not exclusively in children • Familial patterns 3-subtypes Predominantly Inattentive Type • Failure to pay attention to details • Difficulty in sustaining attention • Difficulty in listening • Not finishing homework • Difficulty in organizing • Distraction • Forgetfulness • No sensory problems • Cannot allocate their attention to relevant information • Prone to distraction Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type • Fidgety • On the go • Excessive motor behaviour/talking • Interrupts • Trouble taking turns Combined Type • Both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive qualities • More at risk for developing ODD/conduct disorder if ADHD develops early How different are they? • Do they follow different developmental courses? • Are they associated with different forms of functional impairment? • Are they associated with different challenges? Different developmental courses. • Hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms decline from early childhood through adolescence. • Inattention symptoms decline less over increasing age. • Inattention subtype: Age of onset is late, more girls Associated with different forms of functional impairment. • Hyperactive-impulsive type: • Social-peer problems • Self-regulation/emotion regulation • Inattentive type: • Slow cognitive tempo • Working memory problems Are they associated with different challenges? • Hyperactive-impulsive type: ODD and CD • Inattentive type: Internalizing disorders Comorbidity • Learning disability (14-40%) • Tic Disorders • Externalizing Disorders (CD, ODD) • Anxiety (15-35%, 50%) • Mood disorders • Depression (25-30%)-clinical depression related to interpersona
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