Class Notes (806,766)
Canada (492,430)
Brock University (11,827)
CHYS 2P35 (149)

CHYS 2P35 - November 14

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

CHYS 2P35 Language and Learning Disorders November 14, 2013 Chapter 10 Facts • SLI and LD are neuro-developmental disabilities. • There from birth • Affect the way a child learns, retains knowledge, etc. • Language disorders can be acquired • LD does not disappear over time. • Children can learn how to compensate using various strategies • The gap between LD and typically developing children widens over time. General Definition • Difficulties in understanding and/or manipulating verbal/non-verbal information in the context of average/above average cognitive capacities. • Can be modality specific o Auditory-verbal (spoken language) o Visual-verbal (written language) o Visual-spatial (non-verbal material) • Important to know where someone has difficulties to know where their strengths are Language problems • Broca’s aphasia o Non-fluent o Speech production is very limited o Understanding is spared o Left hemisphere o Understands what is asked but cannot necessarily respond • Wernicke’s aphasia o Fluent o Almost grammatical, prosodic o Extreme alcoholism o Brain trauma o Left hemisphere • Specific Language Impairment (SLI) o Understanding language o Language production o Or both o Overall deficits in speech perception • Absence of hearing impairment • Average IQ or above average IQ • Absence of ASD Specific Language Impairments 1-Phonological disorder (10% & 2-3 %) o Understanding the sound structure. o Involves patterns of sound errors. o Phonological errors in speech o Normal up until a certain age o At this point it is examined to see if it is a disorder o Difficulty understanding the structure of words • Challenges o Learning speech sounds (L, r, s, z, th, ch) o Omissions, substitutions of letters o Rate of speech o Articulation delays o Risk factors for LD=PD and sematic/ syntax problems. 2 - Expressive language disorder (3-10% school age) o Below-average vocabulary skills o Improper use of tenses (past, present, future) o Problems making complex sentences o Use short sentences o Problems remembering words o Difficulty expressing themselves o Difficultly understanding what they want to say o No problems in understanding speech 3 - Receptive-expressive language disorder o Problems in understanding and expressing language o Overuse some words o Delay response time o Frustration anxiety when trying to communicate o Also called mixed language disorder o Difficulty understand the language Etiology • Heritability- 50-75% • Brain language structures: • Posterior left hemisphere (temporal) hypo-activation in phonological problems • Cognitive o Processing speed o Auditory processing o Verbal short-term memory o Phonological Loop (slave system in WM) Learning Disabilities • A severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability (IQ) • Achievement-Literacy skills o Math o Spelling o Reading • May not be identified as LD if achievement-IQ is the result of: o Sensory impairment o Intellectual disability o Emotional problems o Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage Discrepancy Score: Should we use it ? • Other complex formulas to compute discrepancy • Lacks external validity • Discrepancy in high IQ and low IQ groups. • Response to Intervention an alternative way Reading Disabilities • Word level Reading (Dyslexia) o decoding/phonological rules o recognizing words o non-fluent reading • Comprehension o Syntax o Vocabulary Study: Late Emerging Problems • Assessments are done in 4 grade • 22 children RD • Retrospective data • Three different trajectories emerged • LE o Phonological Processing after grade 2 o Word reading grade 4 -Disabilities of Written Expression • Transcription • Writing, spelling • Text generation • Problems with vocabulary • Several cognitive skills Study: Handwriting intervention (McEachern, 2013) Problems of mathematical skills • Basic arithmetic operations • Solving mathematical problems • Other cognitive challenges o Working memory (e.g. sequencing) o Perceptual (visual processing) o Clock reading o Difficulty reading music o Difficulty learning dance steps Non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) • Different than language-based disorders • Related to right hemisphere dysfunctions • Worse performance in math than reading • Visual-spatial problems • Poor coordination • Poor judgment • Difficulties adapting to novel and complex situations • Problems understanding non verbal communication • Social and motivational problems o Teachers rate these children as having more problems o Less popular and more rejected and neglected o May be related to ADHD o May be due to lack of social and problem-solving skills o May increase risk for victimization Etiology Genetic and Constitutional Factors • Heritability of reading disorders is 60% • Exact mode of transmission is unclea
More Less

Related notes for CHYS 2P35

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.