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CHYS 2P35 - November 14

7 Pages

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

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CHYS 2P35 Language and Learning Disorders November 14, 2013 Chapter 10 Facts • SLI and LD are neuro-developmental disabilities. • There from birth • Affect the way a child learns, retains knowledge, etc. • Language disorders can be acquired • LD does not disappear over time. • Children can learn how to compensate using various strategies • The gap between LD and typically developing children widens over time. General Definition • Difficulties in understanding and/or manipulating verbal/non-verbal information in the context of average/above average cognitive capacities. • Can be modality specific o Auditory-verbal (spoken language) o Visual-verbal (written language) o Visual-spatial (non-verbal material) • Important to know where someone has difficulties to know where their strengths are Language problems • Broca’s aphasia o Non-fluent o Speech production is very limited o Understanding is spared o Left hemisphere o Understands what is asked but cannot necessarily respond • Wernicke’s aphasia o Fluent o Almost grammatical, prosodic o Extreme alcoholism o Brain trauma o Left hemisphere • Specific Language Impairment (SLI) o Understanding language o Language production o Or both o Overall deficits in speech perception • Absence of hearing impairment • Average IQ or above average IQ • Absence of ASD Specific Language Impairments 1-Phonological disorder (10% & 2-3 %) o Understanding the sound structure. o Involves patterns of sound errors. o Phonological errors in speech o Normal up until a certain age o At this point it is examined to see if it is a disorder o Difficulty understanding the structure of words • Challenges o Learning speech sounds (L, r, s, z, th, ch) o Omissions, substitutions of letters o Rate of speech o Articulation delays o Risk factors for LD=PD and sematic/ syntax problems. 2 - Expressive language disorder (3-10% school age) o Below-average vocabulary skills o Improper use of tenses (past, present, future) o Problems making complex sentences o Use short sentences o Problems remembering words o Difficulty expressing themselves o Difficultly understanding what they want to say o No problems in understanding speech 3 - Receptive-expressive language disorder o Problems in understanding and expressing language o Overuse some words o Delay response time o Frustration anxiety when trying to communicate o Also called mixed language disorder o Difficulty understand the language Etiology • Heritability- 50-75% • Brain language structures: • Posterior left hemisphere (temporal) hypo-activation in phonological problems • Cognitive o Processing speed o Auditory processing o Verbal short-term memory o Phonological Loop (slave system in WM) Learning Disabilities • A severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability (IQ) • Achievement-Literacy skills o Math o Spelling o Reading • May not be identified as LD if achievement-IQ is the result of: o Sensory impairment o Intellectual disability o Emotional problems o Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage Discrepancy Score: Should we use it ? • Other complex formulas to compute discrepancy • Lacks external validity • Discrepancy in high IQ and low IQ groups. • Response to Intervention an alternative way Reading Disabilities • Word level Reading (Dyslexia) o decoding/phonological rules o recognizing words o non-fluent reading • Comprehension o Syntax o Vocabulary Study: Late Emerging Problems • Assessments are done in 4 grade • 22 children RD • Retrospective data • Three different trajectories emerged • LE o Phonological Processing after grade 2 o Word reading grade 4 -Disabilities of Written Expression • Transcription • Writing, spelling • Text generation • Problems with vocabulary • Several cognitive skills Study: Handwriting intervention (McEachern, 2013) Problems of mathematical skills • Basic arithmetic operations • Solving mathematical problems • Other cognitive challenges o Working memory (e.g. sequencing) o Perceptual (visual processing) o Clock reading o Difficulty reading music o Difficulty learning dance steps Non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) • Different than language-based disorders • Related to right hemisphere dysfunctions • Worse performance in math than reading • Visual-spatial problems • Poor coordination • Poor judgment • Difficulties adapting to novel and complex situations • Problems understanding non verbal communication • Social and motivational problems o Teachers rate these children as having more problems o Less popular and more rejected and neglected o May be related to ADHD o May be due to lack of social and problem-solving skills o May increase risk for victimization Etiology Genetic and Constitutional Factors • Heritability of reading disorders is 60% • Exact mode of transmission is unclea
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