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CHYS 2P35 (149)
Lecture 2

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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

CHYS 2P35 Lecture 2: September 17, 2012 Bio-psycho-social Approach - Biological: genetic, chemical (neurotransmitters, hormones) - Psychological: temperament, coping mechanisms - Social: culture, family, peers 1- Models in developmental psychopathology Interactional models: two or more factors related in some way to produce an outcome o Genetic predisposition o Stressful events  Combination of the two can cause anxiety or other disorders - There are also risk factors o Low self-esteem, bad grades in school, etc. - Resiliency factors o Problem solving o Regulate emotionally, psychologically o Active coping skills o And more… (b)Transactional models - Dynamic approach - Reciprocal relationship between child and his/her environment 2-Development: the core concept in this course - Permanent changes due to growth and maturation; life-long process, but more prominent in the first years of life - Orderly, has a sequence in terms of the change and growth o Timeline for what it happening in the brain, when everything starts to develop and change - Individual variations o Walking and talking occurs at different ages for all children, but if the development deviates from a normal range than there may be developmental issues o E.g. at 2 years child still cannot walk - Critical periods o A child needs visual stimulation to develop fibres from eye to the cortex o A second language is developed stronger from early ages until age 10 o Attachment: Interaction between baby and primary caregiver is very important and affects the development of the chid - Genes X environment o Both influence development, and go hand-in-hand as well 3- Developmental Approach to psychopathology - Integrative frame work - 1970s -> development and psychopathology - Etiological factors and intervention - More developmental in their explanations - Highlights the identification of high risk groups - Normal developmental patterns should be considered 4-Medical Model vs. Developmental Model MEDICAL DEVELOPMENTAL Deterministic Probabilistic Discrete Continuous Diagnose Explain Categories Individual differences Interdisciplinary Multidisciplinary 5- Etiological (causal) factors Patterns or pathways Multifinality o Stress -> healthy, anxiety, depression o Having a stressful environment doesn’t necessarily cause anxiety, other possible outcomes as well Equifinality o Social isolation, parental neglect, learning disability -> depression o Being neglected by pa
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