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Language and Learning Disorders CH 10 CHYS 2P35 OCt 29th.docx

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Child and Youth Studies
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

Language and Learning Disorders October 29 , 2012 Chapter 10 The environment where the child learns best, mainstreaming and integration is something we need to think about. Language Components  Phonology: Knowledge of basic sounds ad sound combinations ba-da  Morphology: Words forms/inflections convey meaning. Egg, mines, go, went  Syntax: Grammar  Semantics: Meaning; “colourless green ideas sleep furiously” Structurally correct, but doesn’t make any sense  Pragmatics: Social use, how we use the language in a social context. Specific Language Impairments (Communication Disorders) Phonological Disorder:  Phonological awareness: Understanding, and used for basic learning skills.  Prerequisites for basic reading skills  Phonological Disorders  Challenges: o Learning speech sounds o Organizing sounds for speech, reading and spelling o Rate of speech o Articulation delays o L, R,S,Z,TH,CH  They are at risk to have other disorders  A lot of comorbidity  May develop, anxiety, depression  Boys outnumber girls almost 2:1  Language issues more in boys. Expressive Language Disorder (3-10% school age):  Below average vocabulary skills  Improper use of tenses, (past, present, future)  Not problem understanding speech  Problems making complex sentences  Problems remembering words  Use standardize expressive language tests and nonverbal intelligence should be used o Watched a video: she couldn’t find words to explain what she wanted to say, used many of the same words over and over again, She used her hands and mannerisms to help explain what the book was about. She was very delayed when speaking. Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder:  Problems in understanding and expressing language  Overuse some words  Delay Response time  Most difficult group  Frustration anxiety when trying to communicate  More introverted  Show more behavioural challenges Etiology  Hereiditability is 50-75%  Brain language Structures: o Posterior left hemisphere (temporal lobe) Hypo-activation in phonological problems  Cognitive; o Processing speed (eg, PASAT, reading numbers one at a time, listen to the numbers, add them up, and answer, then they say another number, they add it to the total and say the answer. ) o Auditory processing o Verbal short-term memory Visual or auditory input, then placed in sensory storage, but we are not aware of that. A picture will be stored in visual spatial scratch pad, Auditory will be stored in the phonological loop. The children with these disorders, are having hard time with the phonological loop Learning Disabilities Inclusion and exclusion criteria (Mostly DMS –IV criteria)  A severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the areas: o Oral expression o Listening comprehension o Written expression o Basic reading skill o Reading comprehension o Mathematics calculation or o Mathematic reasoning  The child may not be identified as having a specific learning disability if the discrepancy between ability and achievement is primary the result of o A visual, hearing, or motor handicap o Mental retardation o Emotional disturbances o Environmental, cultural or economic disadvantage Alternative ways to identify LD  Response to intervention (RTI)  The change in behavior or performance as a function of an intervention  Multi-tiered Approach o Tier 1: Standard curriculum activity o Tier 2: Additional Academic Support o Tier 3: Intensive, small group, IEP Reading Disability  Word level reading (dyslexia) (all the dot jots underneath, explain this, except comprehension)  Decoding/phonological rules  Recognizing words  Non-fluent reading  Repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals  Done in writing and in rea
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