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Lecture 4

CHYS 2P38 Lecture 4: CHYS 2P38- Jan 30

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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Thomas O' Neill

find more resources at CHYS 2P38- Race and Class of Children and Youth January 30, 2017 Ro▯ert Du▯▯’s Ci▯ilizatio▯ a▯d Cere▯ral De▯elop▯e▯t ▯1864▯  Argues that (Nordic) Europeans enjoyed whole brain development while the Carib, Negro and Irish from Leitrim, Sligo and Mayo experienced lesser development  Applied the concept of recapitulation- ontology recapitulates phylogeny to child development as an explanation for racial differences  Physiological racial differences were minimal in small children, develop during adolescence Cranial Structure  Anthropometry after the US civil war made the assumption that carinal structure development, particularly the closure of the cranial structures, indicated arrested cognitive development  Duri▯g U“ ▯re▯o▯stru▯tio▯,▯ this ▯e▯a▯e a sedu▯ti▯e idea  African American children believes to mature earlier, thus creating a conflict for existence between brain growth and reproductive organ growth at puberty  Stereotype led to a fear of (and laws against) miscegenation Socialization  Social prejudice produces scientific knowledge  Social identity and in-group theory: prejudice maintains boundaries of social groups  Problem with the arbitrariness of these groups Jim Crow Laws  A set of laws aimed at segregating whites and blacks after the civil war until the mid 1960s  After 1950 (and in anticipation of the civil rights movement) APA childhood ideology applied to all children Kenneth a▯d Ma▯ie Clark’s Doll “tudies  Showed that African American children suffered from self-rejection  Berstein (2011) argues that children rejected violent practices towards dolls find more resources at find more resources at  African American schools separate but unequally, creating an education system in which they received an inferior education  NAACP challenged segregation policies through the courts by arguing that segregation did psychic damage to African American children  Wells- contrary to common sense view that children are oblivious to racial distinctions, studies showed that children understand in-group distinctions Genetics and Race  Most biologists and anthropologists have abandoned the notion of discrete racial groups  Genetic variation within is greater than variation between these groups (94% vs. 6%)  Human populations have always been on the move Human Genome Project  Evidence exists that although there is a common genetic material, there are differences in the frequency of alleles  These frequencies however do not map on to existing racial types- more of an extended family than a separate biological group Race as a Social Construct  Much of contemporary cultural studies, sociology of racialization reproduce the limitations of racial theories in that they assume race is a real construct, thus failing to critique the fundamental flaws of the concept  The ▯o▯▯ept of ▯eth▯i▯it▯▯ has ▯o▯e to repla▯e ▯ra▯e▯ as the ▯ost ▯o▯▯o▯ for▯ of social distinction  From the Greek ethnos, Latin ethnicus which referred to non-Greek or Ro▯a▯ ▯Others▯ th  Until mid 19 centur▯, i▯ E▯glish ▯as reser▯ed for ▯heate▯s▯ or ▯paga▯s▯  An e
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