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Lecture 6

CHYS 2P38 Lecture 6: CHYS 2P38- Feb 13

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Brock University
Child and Youth Studies
Thomas O' Neill

find more resources at CHYS 2P38- Children Out of Place February 13, 2017 Children At Risk and As Risks  Sharon Stevens in Children and the Politics of Culture (1995) argues that children who are out of place are seen both at risk and as risks  At risk of poor physical, mental or social health outcomes, sexual or economic exploitation  As risks as potential criminals or as embarrassing reminders of failed governance  Wells- the street is a metaphor for the public sphere, in contrast to the private space of the family, to which the modern child properly belongs Children On/Of the Street: Causes  Judith Ennew (2003) argued that the street child is socially constructed in opposition to normative social meanings: - Family unit: abandoned, isolated child - Home: street cannot be a home, street is not where the family is - Moral: street child is living an amoral existence, existence is unnecessary, risky and harmful - Domestic normality: street deviance - Loved child: unloved street child - Cross-cultural evidence shows much of this to be untrue  Children on the streets are children who spend a significant amount of time on the streets to meet economic needs  Children of the streets are children who live on the street, usually with peers as a surrogate family  According the Ennew, the experience of street children varies widely  Casual analysis must be conducted at three levels: 1. Immediate causes. What are the individual reasons for a child to be on the street? - Death or abandonment by parent - Illness of parent (physical or mental) find more resources at find more resources at - Loss of family income - Episode of domestic violence 2. Underlying causes - Chronic impoverishment - Cultural expectations - Pull factors that draw people to urban or peri-urban areas 3. Structural causes - Structural adjustment (neo-liberal policies) - Regional inequalities - Social exclusion (on basis of race or ethnicity) - Economic crises - Natural disaster - War and conflict Nepal- Comparing Allostatic Loads of Children  Catherina Panter- Bri▯k’s “tud▯ ▯2008▯ of allostatic load for Nepali boys  Middle class, squatter, homeless and village boys studied  Homeless children fared marginally better than squatter or village children  “o▯eti▯es a ▯hild’s life o▯ the street is adapti▯e, ▯e▯ause the role of the fa▯il▯ as a site of social reproduction has failed  Peer groups on the street can provide much needed attachment  Sometimes it is also normative; perceptions of street children at risk and as risks may not be seen as prevalent (Indonesia, rural India)  Wells- in many contexts, children on the street are seen with anxiety by others, dirty and dangerous Brazil- Violence on the Street  Tobias Hecht (1998) At Home on the Street: Street Children in Northeast Brazil
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