CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Social Learning Theory, Operant Conditioning, Little Albert Experiment

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Child and Youth Studies CHYS 1F90
Dr. J. McNamara
Fall 2012
Foundations of Development
Kail & Barnfield (2009)
Bronfenbrenner (1994)
Lecture Overview
Roles of theories
Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology
How theories of development are applied
What is a Theory?
A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations
What makes a theory good?
must be the least complex explanation
must be able to be tested
must predict future behaviour
Fundamental Issues in Developmental Theories
Nature / Nurture
Nature -> biological predispositions are most important
Nurture-> environmental influences are most important
An interaction of biology and environment
Overview
Theories and viewpoints in developmental psychology
Biological theories of development
Psychodynamic theories
Learning-based theories
Cognitive-Developmental theory
Contextual theories
Psychoanalytic Theories
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory
Conflict of individual’s instinct and societal norms for behaviour
Three components of personality
Id instinctual urges; don’t act on it
Ego helps to govern between the id and superego
Superego societal norm; do what’s right
Inner Conflict
Between Id Ego - Superego
Psychoanalytic Theories
Freud’s stages of psychosexual development
Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body
Oral (birth 1 year)
Anal (1 3 years)
Phallic (3 6 years)
Latency (6 -11 years) not much happens development wise
Genital (12 onward)
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Document Summary

A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations. Conflict of individual"s instinct and societal norms for behaviour. Id instinctual urges; don"t act on it. Ego helps to govern between the id and superego. Superego societal norm; do what"s right. Stages propose shifts in focus on parts of body. Latency (6 -11 years) not much happens development wise. Viewed children as more active in development than freud. More emphasis on social and cultural influences on development. A focus on environment and social nature of conflict. Psychoanalytical theories idea of unconscious motivation focus on later consequences of early experiences. No real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality. Only overt behaviours should be measured and analyzed. Strong emphasis on environmental influences recall locke"s tabula rasa blank slate. Exposed albert to a rat never been exposed before.

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