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Lecture 4

CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Twin Study, Stereotype Threat, Social Stratification

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Rebecca Raby

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CHYS 1F90 Lecture 4 Sept. 27, 2012
What is Intelligence?
Thought to be a stable trait
A capacity
May theories of what intelligence is
How is Intelligence Measured?
Most current test
The Wechsler Scales
Used to measure IQ in adults -> psychologists use only
Used to measure IQ in children -> only psychologists can use it
o Tests include both verbal and nonverbal (performance) measures
Intelligence is a stable trait?
Scores at age 8 correlate with scores at age 18 (.70)
Many children show fluctuations
o Increase or decrease; not random
o Environment important
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CHYS 1F90 Lecture 4 Sept. 27, 2012
What do IQ scores predict?
Scholastic achievement
o .50 correlation with future grades
Vocational outcome
o Occupation
o Education
Factors that influence IQ
Evidence for heredity
o Twin studies
Identical twins’ IQ correlated more than fraternal
o Adoption studies
Adopted children’s IQ s resemble biological parents more than adopted parents
Intelligence is a stable trait? R.Raby Cameo Lecture
IQ and self-regulated learning
o Reminder: a socio-cultural perspective prioritizes importance of culture, social relations,
social structure, social inequality
IQ as culturally specific
o E.g. Kpelle in Liberia
Given a series of pictures -> need to determine which go together (e.g. orange,
cherry, knife)
Diverse cultural traits
o Categories
o Time
o Games
o Individual vs collective
Concept, style and content of IQ testing commonly reflects a Western cultural
Class-based differences
o E.g. Basil Bernstein: private vs. public speech
o Hart and Risley: learning at home
45 million words (Talking, reading to them, etc)
26 million words middle class
13 million words higher class
o Socio-economic inequality is relevant to the skills to do with learning
IQ tests not benign
o Linked to labeling and discrimination
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