CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Chronotropic, Object Permanence, Falsifiability

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1. CHYS 1F90- Biopsychosocial Approaches &
Developmental Theories
September 23
Biopsychosocial= Biology (genetics, medications) + Psychology (emotions,
attitudes, beliefs) + Social Aspects (family, culture, relationships)
The biological part is largely explained through genetics
Gene Environment Interactions
oCanalization principle
- Genes restrict development to a small range of outcomes
- Babbling and walking are highly canalized attributes
- Particular traits the brain has set on a particular schedule
oRange of Reaction Principle
- Genes set boundaries for range of phenotypes based on environment
- Not as rigid as canalization
- What phenotypes are possible given your genotype
- Genotype does not set a fixed outcome
- Restricted environments shorten range of reactions (lower IQ)
oHold environment constant: variability due to genes
o Species-typical environment and experiences also influence
developmental course
oTiming of experience can be crucial (critical periods)
oEpigenesis- bi-directional relationship between all levels of biology
and experiential variables
oGenetic activity both influences and is influenced by structural
maturation
- Structural maturation is bi-directionally linked to function and activity
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oOrganisms inherit special-typical genotype
Development: Changes in Structure/Function Over Time
oStructure: some substrate of the organism (nervous tissue, muscle,
limb)
oCognitive development refers to structure as mental construct, faculty
or ability that changes with age
oFunction: actions related to a structure, both internal and external
Types of Function
oExternal: neurochemical/hormonal secretions, experience, external
sources of stimulation
oInternal: exercise of a muscle, firing of a neuron, activation of
cognitive process
Bi-Directional Interactions
oVery important concept in structure and function and in cognition
generally
oTemporarily paralyzed = deformations in joints
oInvoluntary movement (function) important to structure development
oDevelopment is not the unfolding of genetic sequence
oNot structure  function or function  structure
oNot product of experience on passive child
oStructure  function concept is central to development
Adaptive Nature of Cognitive Immaturity
oDevelopment is not always simple to complex
oPoor perception may protect infants’ nervous system from overload
oSlow information processing may prevent the establishment of
detrimental intellectual habits
oImmature cognition may have integrity and function on its own
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