CHYS 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Visual Cortex, Neural Darwinism, Myelin

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1. CHYS 1F90- Genetics & Prenatal Development
September 16
Genetic predisposition
oIt is an increased likelihood of developing particular disease based
on a person’s genetic makeup
Phenotype- the outward physical manifestation of our genotype which is
internally coded, inheritable information*
Genetics  Ingredients + Environment = Product
Genes
oEach chromosome contains genes
oSections of chromosomes
oMade up of DNA  the chemical code for development
oDirect productions of amino acids necessary for forming new cells,
which guides cells to develop different parts of the body
Heritability- amount of variability in a trait that is attributed to hereditary
influence
Genotype- inherited genes*
o(Genotype) Inherited genes are expressed through (phenotype)
observable characteristics and behaviours
Sandra Scarr & Kathleen McCartney
oTheory of Genotype  Environment Effects
oThe person’s genotype drives experience
Three types of Genotype  Environment Effects
Passive
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oOccurs when biological parents raise child
oDecrease in influence over time
oInseparable effects of genetics and environment
oPromotes similarities in siblings
Evocative
oAffect behaviour of others in environment
oChild’s genotype elicits responses from others
oPresumably remains constant
o“Unshared” environment increases differences among siblings
Active
oActively select comfortable environment
oDifferent genotypes attracted to different environments
oResults in different experiences, also referred to as Niche-Picking
oIncreases in influence over time
oChildren in same home may become increasingly different
Prenatal Development
oHalf genes from mother, half from father
oConception creates one cell of egg and sperm, duplicates through
mitosis
oMitosis is the duplication of cells
oMitosis Diagram
Step 1: Original parent cell
Step 2: Each chromosome splits
Step 3: Chromosomes duplicate
Step 4: Cell completes its division  now 2 cells
Germinal Period (from conception to implantation in uterine wall)
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