CHYS 2P10 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Margaret Mead, Social Learning Theory, Conflicting Emotions

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
Brock University
Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Today's Lecture
- Review seminar structure
Lecture 2
Seminars
- The basic structure of the seminars revolves around debates
- Debates are a good way to critical examine issues related to the course
- Debate topics will be posted that correspond to topics covered in lectures as a way of
building on lectures
- During seminars, students will individually (or sometimes in pairs) debate for or against
a given topic
- These debates must be based on scientific evidence, some of which will be provided for
you, some of which you'll need to find on your own
- These debates will also lead to a paper on the topic you debate that includes responses
to questions from the class and arguments from your opponent
- I expect to see improvements in the paper vs. the debate
- Paper formatting is very important in order for it to be universally fair
- Debates will be evaluated by the TAs/myself and by your peers
- Peer grade will be the class average
- Good evaluations are also part of your grade- they are you seminar participation
component
Nature/Nurture
- in practical examples they are equally important
- for political and practical reasons nurture often gets more attention
Margaret Mead
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“We also recognized that there were dangers in such a formulation…We knew how
politically loaded discussions of inborn differences could become; we knew that the
Russians had abandoned their experiment in rearing identical twins when it was found
that, even reared under different circumstances, they displayed astonishing likeness. By
then [1935] it seemed clear to us that the further study of inborn differences would have
to wait for less troubled times.”
Dr. Sigmund Freud
6 May 1856 - 23 September 1939
Three Components of Personality
- the id represents the basic urges
- the ego represents the rational component of the mind
- the superego represents the conscience, morality
- there is a conflict with the ego trig to control the id and the superego tries to make sure
that fits one's morals
- the two basic urges that Freud identified were: sex and aggression
Freudian Stages
- Freud believed that development progressed through different stages
- Stages were universal in existence and in their order
- Success in a stage was not required for passing on to a later stage
- Changes in one's environment and maturation leads to stage progression
Freud's Contributions
- he determined that what happens to you when you are young effects who you are in the
future, as an adult
- found out that we have conflicting emotions and internal conflicts
- the importance of the unconscious
Erik Erikson
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He studied combat soldiers, child-rearing amongst the Sioux and Yurok, play in normal
and abnormal children, adolescent identity, popular culture and adolescents, and social
behaviour in India.
- he studied a broader population
- among the first to look at children and base his theory on his observations
General Theory
- Erikson believed in psychosocial, rather than psychosexual, forces
- Believe in stages, but added adult stages to Freud's five childhood stages
- Placed a much stronger influence on culture than Freud
- Believed in epigenesis (creating from yourself) as the core of development
- Like Freud, the theories are sequential, but they do not build directly from previous
stages
- Therefore, it is possible to pass on to a new stage even if a current stage is poorly
resolved
- Can return to a stage at a later date if needed to complete/repair the stage
- Placed a strong emphasis on identity development as an ongoing process throughout
development (rather than personality)
- Added direct observation of children, cross-cultural comparisons, and
psychobiographies to psychoanalytic methods
Trust - Mistrust (0-1)
whether or not the child can rely on the caregiver
- During this stage, the infant learns whether or not they can rely on another human
being(s), typically the mother
- If the mother is responsive, the child learns to trust
- If the mother is unresponsive, the child learns not to trust in others
Autonomy - Shame (2-3)
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Document Summary

The basic structure of the seminars revolves around debates. Debates are a good way to critical examine issues related to the course. Debate topics will be posted that correspond to topics covered in lectures as a way of building on lectures. During seminars, students will individually (or sometimes in pairs) debate for or against a given topic. These debates must be based on scientific evidence, some of which will be provided for you, some of which you"ll need to find on your own. These debates will also lead to a paper on the topic you debate that includes responses to questions from the class and arguments from your opponent. I expect to see improvements in the paper vs. the debate. Paper formatting is very important in order for it to be universally fair. Debates will be evaluated by the tas/myself and by your peers. Peer grade will be the class average.

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