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Lecture 5

CHYS 2P10 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Noam Chomsky, Eric Lenneberg, Meta-Communication


Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 2P10
Professor
Anthony Volk
Lecture
5

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Week 5 Language Development
CHYS 2P10
Dr. Tony Volk
Housecleaning
Exam after Reading Week
Seminars are cancelled that exam week
Exam will have ~100 MC questions
What Is Language?
1. Arbitrariness uses symbols that are not related to the concept that they represent (e.g., hieroglyphics vs.
English letters) your name is an example.. nothing about a Jennifer that makes YOU Jennifer.. it’s arbitrary
2. Productivity can produce communications that are unique; can express completely novel ideas
Eg. Youtube video.. can only say what it has recorded, not say anything new. Idea: language can be used to
create anything you want
What Is Language?
3. Semanticity language represents a form of patterned information you can say sounds, make up your own
sounds, with meaning
4. Displacement language is independent of time, so you can talk about past, present, and future language is
independent from time or place, you can tell me where you ate breakfast even though you are not there or it is
not that time
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your name is an example.. nothing about a Jennifer that makes YOU Jennifer.. it’s arbitrary
5. Duality language is represented on two levels: the sounds of the language and its underlying meaning both
structure/sounds and the underlying meaning
Language Development
Language development occurs universally, and usually progresses through common stages: crying (0-4m),
cooing/babbling (4-12), initial words (12-18), two-word sentences (18-36), short sentences (2.5-5y), adult
usage (5y+)
Also often involves body gestures that appear at an early age
Components of Language
Phonological Development
Phonological development refers to learning the sounds of a language
Babbling includes subset of language sounds, may serve a social function
Babbling initially universal, then specific
Babbling appears to to arise from the same neural structures as language (e.g., left lobe)
We separate out the different components of language
What are the units of sounds that we need to listen to.. eg. Whistle has no meaning
Atypical Language Development
Video 1 203 (S.A.F.) : Chedd-Angier.com
Can be impaired if there are significant delays in early learning of language
Makes early intervention a priority (e.g., cochlear implants)
Maturation or a lack of experience?
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Phonological Development
Morphological Development
Free morphemes stand alone, bound morphemes attach to free morph.
Children learn rules for attaching free morphemes to bounds morphemes (adding “ed” to “talk”)
Mean Length of Utterance refers to number of morphemes per sentence this increases with age/lang. devel.
Syntactic Development
Syntax rules of grammar
How words are arranged into sentences
Word order can play an important role in the meaning of a sentence
Negatives children initially attach words of negation to positive sentences
E.g. “No drink milk.” or “Drink milk no.” evolve to “Drink no milk.” then adult way
Syntactic Development
Questions are initially asked using vocal intonation, then around 3 years, “wh” words begin to be used
Passive sentences e.g. “The study was found to be significant.” – they don’t contain word order cues and
are so more difficult to understand by younger children
Syntactic Development
Relating events within a sentence through the use of conjunctions doesn’t usually appear until around 3 years
E.g., use and, but, because, while, that, which
Semantics refer to a word’s meaning
What is “the nyeh”?
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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