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Lecture 2

CHYS 2P10 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Margaret Mead, Eugenics, Anal Stage

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Anthony Volk

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Dr. Tony Volk
Today’s Lecture
Later chapter pg #s change
Review seminar structure
Lecture 2
The basic structure of the seminars revolves around debates
Debates are a good way to critical examine issues related to the course
Debate topics will be posted that correspond to topics covered in lectures as a way of
building on lectures
During seminars, students will individually (or sometimes in pairs) debate for or against a
given topic
These debates must be based on scientific evidence, some of which will be provided for you,
some of which you’ll need to find on your own
Debates will be evaluated 50/50 by the TAs and by your peers
Peer grade will be the class average
Good evaluations are also part of your grade- they are you seminar participation component
POINT FORM ONLY ALLOWED for debate presentation notes; max 10 cue cards; TAs WILL
inspect them at start
These debates will also lead to a paper on the topic you debate that includes responses to
questions from the class and arguments from your opponent
Winner gets 1 bonus mark
I expect to see improvements in the paper vs. the debate
Paper formatting is very important in order for it to be universally fair
Do not f&*@$*@ waste both our time!
We WILL detect it, you WILL be punished, it WON’T be worth it
1.Take a late penalty or low grade instead, you will end up with a better grade and far
less hassle
2. Do not “copy and paste”
Avoid big chunks of sentences
You can resubmit it twice (no more than 5%)
3. Read the paper and then put it aside! (going EARLY helps too)
To avoid “accidental” plagiarism, we are allowing students to resubmit their
assignment once
Each submission will come with a report that should not have full
sentences copied (5% or less is usually ideal)
NO late resubmissions (past seminar)
Child Development
Development, as we’ll see next week, is a combination of the two
Highly sensitive to talk about biology
For political and practical reasons, nurture often gets extra credit
Easier to alter environment rather than DNA
In reality, nurture is what we can control more easily than nature, so we tend to focus on it more
Not one that is more important
Week 2: Theories of Human Development
CHYS 2P10 Page 1

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It is the interaction between the two
Not one that is more important
Not nature vs nurture but nature with nurture
Children development is always the combination between the two
“We also recognized that there were dangers in such a formulation…We knew how politically
loaded discussions of inborn differences could become; we knew that the Russians had
abandoned their experiment in rearing identical twins when it was found that, even reared under
different circumstances, they displayed astonishing likeness. By then [1935] it seemed clear to us
that the further study of inborn differences would have to wait for less troubled times.”
Sexual development was cultural determine
Eugenics movement- scared of inborn differences
Margaret Mead
6 May 1856 23 September 1939
Sexual desires
Want immediate satisfaction
The id represents the basic urges
Referee between the two
Balance the needs of the id and the superego
The ego represents the rational component of the mind
The superego represents the conscience, morality
There is a conflict with the ego trying to control the id and the superego tries to make sure
that fits one’s morals
Three Components of Personality
Freud believed that development progressed through different stages
Everyone had these stages and went through them in the same order
Stages were universal in existence and in their order
Success in a stage was not required for passing on to a later stage
Changes in one’s environment and maturation leads to stage progression
Oral stage
Anal stage
Phallic/ edaphus stage
Adolescence stage
Freudian Stages
Matters: what happens inside of us are often things that we are not aware of
The importance of the unconscious
Echoed in adulthood
Child template at a young age
The importance of childhood in determining later development
Internal conflict
Freud’s Contributions
Dr. Sigmund Freud
Broader exposure of different contexts
He studied combat soldiers, child-rearing amongst the Sioux and Yurok, play in normal and
abnormal children, adolescent identity, popular culture and adolescents, and social behavior in
Driven to interact with other people
Erikson believed in psychosocial, rather than psychosexual, forces
Believe in stages, but added adult stages to Freud’s five childhood stages
Placed a much stronger influence on culture than Freud
Epigenesis: self-creation, rather then you were the creation of your genes and
Believed in epigenesis as the core of development
General Theory
Erik Erikson
CHYS 2P10 Page 2
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