Simple problem-solving: benefits are limited, but greatest in low ses. Schools y determinants of effective school y composition of the student body: what area of town students are coming from (rich versus poor, money for resources (athletics) Aboriginal students & school y aboriginal children fare less well in school y much higher risk for school difficulties. Inclusion (mainstreaming) y does it work: cooperative learning methods. Students with special needs y covered in another course, but briefly, they are increasingly integrated into classrooms to promote cooperative learning where they learn from and with their peers y helps develop social as well as academic skills y. Social skills are equally important as academic skills. Locus of control y y do you believe that you have control over your success y y y y cultural differences which imply how hard students try. In japan - i did well because i studied hard.