Initially observed infants in hospital settings: what happens with children that we care for in hospitals, prestine & clean; lots of sunlight = kills germs, regular care = behavioral issues. Noticed that infants who did not receive regular care from an individual caregiver showed affect hunger . That is, the infants showed impoverished emotional development and a desire for affection (early on) The cupboard theory of attachment was initially proposed to explain the mother- infant bond. Infants bonded to the mother because she was a cupboard for their needs (e. g. , food, water, heat) Harlow demonstrated that physical comfort was a critical factor. Example: harlow"s monkeys & attachment, seeking food & comfort. Monkey"s were given one mother that fed them & one that didn"t. Not expecting it to override life-giving nourishment: using mother as secure base. Bowlby was a psychoanalytical psychologist interested in studying children. Believed that there is an innate psychological mechanism for promoting a bond between caregiver and infant.