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CHYS 2P35 Lecture Notes - Twin Study, Selective Mutism, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor

Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

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September 26, 2013
Chapter 6: Anxiety Disorders
What is the difference between normal fear and anxiety?
- intensity ,duration, cognitive aspects ( exceeds the boundaries of reality),
interference of daily tasks, reality side
- fear may not be long lasting, no worry component, may not interfere with daily
- anxiety intensity may fluctuate depending on the worry of the person and the
environment they are in, duration is mostly chronic (for example: GAD is always
there), interferes with daily tasks (this is a criteria)
Anxiety as an Internalizing Disorder
- related to problems “within the self”
- uses self related coping strategies (feeling guilty, the self as a frame of reference,
internalizing problems)
- anxiety, mood disorders, somatic complaints (physiological symptoms, no
physiological reason for it)
- children seem to deal with these problems internally rather than acting out
Definition of Anxiety and Components of Anxiety
- extreme fear, worry, related to perceived danger
- three components of anxiety:
cognitive - related to the event (uncontrollably, unpredictability), related
to personal coping (negative evaluations, constant worry), the way I
interpret things
physiological – increased vigilance (misinterpret things, biases, cognitive
biases), hyper-responsiveness, sympathetic nervous system arousal,
something ambiguous is always interpreted in a negative way
behaviour – avoidance, decreasing anxiety by not facing the situation,
negative reinforcement, will maintain anxious behaviour
- if anxiety is not treated it can lead to:
problems in academic life
problems in social life
low self-esteem
alcohol/drug abuse
work related problems
anxiety or mood disorders
DSM-IV TR categorizations of Anxiety disorders
- simple phobia
- selective mutism
- social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
- generalized anxiety disorder
- obsessive compulsive disorder
- panic disorder with and without agoraphobia
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- post-traumatic stress disorder
- acute stress disorder
- separation anxiety disorder
Anxiety Disorders
Phobia, SAD, GAD sa,e
Panic disorder and Agoraphobia are in different categories
PTSD (Categorized under Trauma and Stress related disorders)
Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders
Body dysmorphic disorder
Hoarding disorder
Separation Anxiety Disorder:
- normal until 1 year of age
- prevalence: about 3-12% (community samples). Higher prevalence in clinical
groups also higher in children compared to older adolescents
- developmentally inappropriate/excessive anxiety (symptoms vary with age)
- may be accompanied by depression, sadness, withdrawal, or fear
- somatic symptoms
Social Anxiety Disorder (Social phobia)
- excessive fear of social situations and/or performance situations
- extreme concern about performance
- other people’s opinions
- extreme self-consciousness
- avoid situations
- low self-esteem
- underachievement
- etiology – temperamental, behavioural inhibition, genetic
Specific Phobias
- children may experience intense, irrational fears (not valid for young children) of
certain things or situations (persist at least 6 months)
- children or adolescents will become extremely distressed when confronted with
the feared object or situations
- anticipation anxiety
- avoidance behaviour
- interference for everyday activity
- comorbid with other anxiety disorders
- different types
- could be learned, conditioned, child may be in a situation which brings on the
fear, vicarious learning
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
- obsessions: unwanted, intrusive, recurrent thoughts
- compulsions: repetitive, ritualistic behaviours in response to obsessions (decrease
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