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Lecture

CHYS 2P35 - November 14

7 Pages
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Department
Child and Youth Studies
Course Code
CHYS 2P35
Professor
Ayda Tekok- Kilic

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CHYS 2P35
Language and Learning Disorders
November 14, 2013
Chapter 10
Facts
SLI and LD are neuro-developmental disabilities.
There from birth
Affect the way a child learns, retains knowledge, etc.
Language disorders can be acquired
LD does not disappear over time.
Children can learn how to compensate using various strategies
The gap between LD and typically developing children widens over time.
General Definition
Difficulties in understanding and/or manipulating verbal/non-verbal information in the
context of average/above average cognitive capacities.
Can be modality specific
oAuditory-verbal (spoken language)
oVisual-verbal (written language)
oVisual-spatial (non-verbal material)
Important to know where someone has difficulties to know where their strengths are
Language problems
Broca’s aphasia
oNon-fluent
oSpeech production is very limited
oUnderstanding is spared
oLeft hemisphere
oUnderstands what is asked but cannot necessarily respond
Wernicke’s aphasia
oFluent
oAlmost grammatical, prosodic
oExtreme alcoholism
oBrain trauma
oLeft hemisphere
Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
oUnderstanding language
oLanguage production
oOr both
oOverall deficits in speech perception
Absence of hearing impairment
Average IQ or above average IQ
Absence of ASD
Specific Language Impairments
1-Phonological disorder (10% & 2-3 %)
oUnderstanding the sound structure.
oInvolves patterns of sound errors.
oPhonological errors in speech
oNormal up until a certain age
oAt this point it is examined to see if it is a disorder
oDifficulty understanding the structure of words
Challenges
oLearning speech sounds (L, r, s, z, th, ch)
oOmissions, substitutions of letters
oRate of speech
oArticulation delays
oRisk factors for LD=PD and sematic/ syntax problems.
2 - Expressive language disorder (3-10% school age)
oBelow-average vocabulary skills
oImproper use of tenses (past, present, future)
oProblems making complex sentences
oUse short sentences
oProblems remembering words
oDifficulty expressing themselves
oDifficultly understanding what they want to say
oNo problems in understanding speech
3 - Receptive-expressive language disorder
oProblems in understanding and expressing language
oOveruse some words
oDelay response time
oFrustration anxiety when trying to communicate
oAlso called mixed language disorder
oDifficulty understand the language
Etiology
Heritability- 50-75%
Brain language structures:
Posterior left hemisphere (temporal) hypo-activation in phonological problems
Cognitive
oProcessing speed
oAuditory processing
oVerbal short-term memory
oPhonological Loop (slave system in WM)
Learning Disabilities
A severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability (IQ)
Achievement-Literacy skills
oMath
oSpelling
oReading
May not be identified as LD if achievement-IQ is the result of:

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Description
CHYS 2P35 Language and Learning Disorders November 14, 2013 Chapter 10 Facts • SLI and LD are neuro-developmental disabilities. • There from birth • Affect the way a child learns, retains knowledge, etc. • Language disorders can be acquired • LD does not disappear over time. • Children can learn how to compensate using various strategies • The gap between LD and typically developing children widens over time. General Definition • Difficulties in understanding and/or manipulating verbal/non-verbal information in the context of average/above average cognitive capacities. • Can be modality specific o Auditory-verbal (spoken language) o Visual-verbal (written language) o Visual-spatial (non-verbal material) • Important to know where someone has difficulties to know where their strengths are Language problems • Broca’s aphasia o Non-fluent o Speech production is very limited o Understanding is spared o Left hemisphere o Understands what is asked but cannot necessarily respond • Wernicke’s aphasia o Fluent o Almost grammatical, prosodic o Extreme alcoholism o Brain trauma o Left hemisphere • Specific Language Impairment (SLI) o Understanding language o Language production o Or both o Overall deficits in speech perception • Absence of hearing impairment • Average IQ or above average IQ • Absence of ASD Specific Language Impairments 1-Phonological disorder (10% & 2-3 %) o Understanding the sound structure. o Involves patterns of sound errors. o Phonological errors in speech o Normal up until a certain age o At this point it is examined to see if it is a disorder o Difficulty understanding the structure of words • Challenges o Learning speech sounds (L, r, s, z, th, ch) o Omissions, substitutions of letters o Rate of speech o Articulation delays o Risk factors for LD=PD and sematic/ syntax problems. 2 - Expressive language disorder (3-10% school age) o Below-average vocabulary skills o Improper use of tenses (past, present, future) o Problems making complex sentences o Use short sentences o Problems remembering words o Difficulty expressing themselves o Difficultly understanding what they want to say o No problems in understanding speech 3 - Receptive-expressive language disorder o Problems in understanding and expressing language o Overuse some words o Delay response time o Frustration anxiety when trying to communicate o Also called mixed language disorder o Difficulty understand the language Etiology • Heritability- 50-75% • Brain language structures: • Posterior left hemisphere (temporal) hypo-activation in phonological problems • Cognitive o Processing speed o Auditory processing o Verbal short-term memory o Phonological Loop (slave system in WM) Learning Disabilities • A severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability (IQ) • Achievement-Literacy skills o Math o Spelling o Reading • May not be identified as LD if achievement-IQ is the result of: o Sensory impairment o Intellectual disability o Emotional problems o Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage Discrepancy Score: Should we use it ? • Other complex formulas to compute discrepancy • Lacks external validity • Discrepancy in high IQ and low IQ groups. • Response to Intervention an alternative way Reading Disabilities • Word level Reading (Dyslexia) o decoding/phonological rules o recognizing words o non-fluent reading • Comprehension o Syntax o Vocabulary Study: Late Emerging Problems • Assessments are done in 4 grade • 22 children RD • Retrospective data • Three different trajectories emerged • LE o Phonological Processing after grade 2 o Word reading grade 4 -Disabilities of Written Expression • Transcription • Writing, spelling • Text generation • Problems with vocabulary • Several cognitive skills Study: Handwriting intervention (McEachern, 2013) Problems of mathematical skills • Basic arithmetic operations • Solving mathematical problems • Other cognitive challenges o Working memory (e.g. sequencing) o Perceptual (visual processing) o Clock reading o Difficulty reading music o Difficulty learning dance steps Non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) • Different than language-based disorders • Related to right hemisphere dysfunctions • Worse performance in math than reading • Visual-spatial problems • Poor coordination • Poor judgment • Difficulties adapting to novel and complex situations • Problems understanding non verbal communication • Social and motivational problems o Teachers rate these children as having more problems o Less popular and more rejected and neglected o May be related to ADHD o May be due to lack of social and problem-solving skills o May increase risk for victimization Etiology Genetic and Constitutional Factors • Heritability of reading disorders is 60% • Exact mode of transmission is unclea
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