CHYS 2P38 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: District School Board Of Niagara, Miscegenation, Anthropometry

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CHYS 2P38: Children, Youth, and Society
Some wacky Nineteenth Century “race” science
Jim Crow” and the African American child
Why “race” does not really exist
Ethnicity as a constructivist concept
Third culture and “second generation children
Social class does matter
The DSBN school debate
Neo-liberalism and the global child
Quote slide: popular idea that maybe children are innocent
(western perspective); someone suggested that there were
biological di+erence of di+erent races
Dunn’s “civilization and cerebral development” (1864) argues
that (Nordic) Europeans enjoyed “whole brain development”,
while the “Carib, Negro” and “Irish from Leitrim, Sligo, and Mayo
experienced lesser development (not as highly developed as
dominant group)
Applied concept of recapitulation – “ontogeny recapitulates
phylogeny” to child development as an explanation for racial
di+erences
Physiological racial di+erences were minimal in small children,
develop during adolescence
Anthropometry after the U.S civil war made the assumption that
cranial structure development, particularly the ‘closure of the
cranial sutures’, indicated ‘arrested cognitive development’
(there’s no di+erence – same species even if someone’s from
Toronto, and ones from Africa; we’re all homosapiens)
During U.S “Reconstructionthis became a seductive idea
African American children believed to mature earlier, thus
creating “a con=ict for existence between brain growth and
reproductive organ growth at puberty”
Stereotype led to a fear of (and laws against) miscegenation
(2) Social prejudice produces “scienti?c knowledge”
Social identity and “in-group” theory – prejudice maintains
boundaries of social groups (e.g. power; Political debates, and
prime ministers)
Problem with the arbitrariness of these groups (markers between
us and them in arbitrary and constructed)
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