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clas 2934 cities and sanctuaries of the ancient world.docx

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Department
Classics
Course
CLAS 2P34
Professor
John Mitterer
Semester
Fall

Description
CLAS2P34CitiesandSanctuariesoftheAncientWorldCivilizationWhatDoWeMeanLatintermscitizencivitascityurbsProcessbeginsinNearEastoBirthplaceofWesterncivilizationnowaglobalphenomenonButiscivilizationanelitisttermoCanbeusedtodefineusandtherestoftheworldotherpeopleoMaybeawayfromgoawayfromtheworldInpastcivilizedwastheoppositeofbarbarianorprimitivepeoplesTodayculturedusedmorebutoNeedtonotbejudgementaloCivilizationisstillavalidtermfortheattributesofanurbanizedcomplexsocietyourfocusNeedtofocusonthefactthatciviliationmeanscomingtogetherasagroupHowDidThisHappenEndofthelasticeagec10000BChugechangesoMajorchangeinplanetwithicehumanbehaviourchangedaswelloChangesoccurringinhumanbehaviouroTurningpointGeneralsenseclansvilagestownsoEvolvesintopeoplecomingtogetherwhoarenotrelatedoFromnomadicclanstosettlingintovillagesFinallycitiesby4000BCoGradualprocessthatsnowballsnogoingbackNonrelatedpeopleworkingtogetheroImplieselementsofkingroupsstillincitybutpeopleagreetocometogetherandworktogetherPlacedtrustinotherstoorganizecommunityGordonChildeoPsychologistoStartsthinkingabouthowallofthiscametogetheroCameupwithtermurbanrevolutionSochangingreasonfortermrevolutionCompletelychangingeveryaspectWhatdidcityhavetoofferWesternCivilizationGreeceandRomehailedasanimportantculturalbasisofourowncultureoWeinheritedpoliticalculturaltechnologicalartandarchitecturalideasfromthemButtheyinturninheritedfromearliercivilizationoDerivedorinfluencedfromearlierLonglineoftransmissionofideasoCuneiformhieroglyphicsGreekinscriptionsLatincodexHallmarksofCivilizationThemesDevelopmentsinagricultureoChangefromhuntinggatheringtocreatingitinthefirstplaceOrganizedagricultureproductioninsurplusoRichIncreasedunderstandingofhowtomanipulatenatureoEnablespeopletocometogetherLargerpopulationcomplexurbanismoPeopledevelopspecificoccupationsetcSpecializationoflabourSocialstratificationoIdeathatpeoplestarttogainwealthRichmiddleclassespoorComplexgovernmentoNeedmorepeopletogoernandorganizeComplexeconomyandtradeoGrowswithamountofpeopleBureaucracyandwritingoHowtokeeptrackofrecordsandoccurrancesOwnershipofpropertylawcodesoWhenownsomethingneedlawstodefineownershipsonotviolatedoProtectionofpropertyWarfaremilitaryartsoNeedtoprotectandconquerComplexcommunalreligionoFundamentaltourbanbehaviouroOpportunityforcommunalobservancesandmonumentalreligiousbuildingsArtsandcraftsproductionArchitectureandbuildingprojectsScienceandtechnologyDarkSideofCivilizationHistoryofelitestheyleavethemostevidencebehindoHavethemostmaterialremainsoMostmoneytospendtheirstuffremainsCivilizationmeansthedivisionspecializationandespeciallyexploitationoflabourbytheelitesoMuchmoredifficulttoaccesslowerclassesFromheightsofhumanachievementsartarchitecturescienceaccumulatedknowledgeCollapseTransformationAllcivilizationsriseandfalloThisisabasicandfundamentaltruthwithintheevolutionofhumansocietyoLiketransformationbetterthanfalloNotalwaystramaticWherearetheSumariansEgyptiansGreeksRomansTodayEithercollapsedortransformedoSocietiesconstantlychangeandevolveoSomethingforustoconsideraswellEnvironmentusuallycaseofcollaseUsGeographyBasicRegionsMespotoamiatheNileRiverValleyandtheMediterraneanbasinforthiscourseEarliestcivilization35001500BCNeolithicPeriodNeolithicinNearEastc900500BCLasticeagec10000BCoWarmerclimateadequaterainfalldevelopmentofagricultureinthefertilecresentButrevolutionGradualandregionalnotinstantaneousoGradualregionalnotallencompassinganimalhusbandrygatheringanimalskeepingthemoReadyaccesstotheirresourcescultivationofplantsWhyAgriculturalRevolutionHardertoanswermorerestrictivedifficultandlabourintensivelifestylethanhuntinggatheringoFindpeoplenotnecessarilyhealthierorbetteroffoSometimessacrificehealthbycomingtogetheroDiseasesanimalsandpeopletogetherpeopleinlargernumbersAgriculturemoreworkSettlementsfirstthenagricultureoCametogetherfirstthenhadtorelyonagriculturetosuriviveClimatefluctuationsoMorevulnerabletoenvironmentandclimatechangesNeolithicSitesJerichoIsrealGobekliTepeeasternTurkeyCatalhoyukTurkeyNeolithicJerichooldestcontinuallyinhavitedcityintheworldoAbout9000BConwardoDrawnbyampleresourcesofwaterPPNAprepotteryNeolithicAsettlementoNopotteryhavetousebasketsandanimalskinsVillagesofsmallroundhousessundriedbrickoBuildmorepermanentdwellingsoHousesc5metersacrossroofewithbranchesandmudoHearthsinsideandoutsideoSemipermanenteventuallytorndownandrebuildlast1015yearsifkeptupoNotcomplexstructuresbutoffershelter
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