COMM 1F90 1
Always have your clicker
LECTURE 1 WEEK 2
Chapter 2 + 3
History of communication and media studies.
Pre 1900‟s - Study of language, literature and rhetoric in universities
Early 1900‟s - Diverging fields of information theory and public opinion.
1950‟s - Idea of “communication” as a separate human activity.
1960‟s - Idea of “media”
Key Ideas Timeline
1922 – Walter Lippmann on journalism and Public Opinion
- Walter Lippmann
o Public opinion
Positive role of the press in forming peoples opinion, and overcoming sterotypes.
1939 – Shannon and Weaver on Transmission Model of Communication
- Shannon and Weaver
o Transmission model of communication
Message Channel Message
1940‟s – Communication Studies
o Established in Columbia, University of Chicago, University of Illinois
1944 – „Frankfurt School (Group of people)‟ on Critical Theory, media in a capitalist society
1950‟s – Canadian research in Toronto:
o Harold Innis wrote Empire and Communications (winter term reading) COMM 1F90 2
1960‟s – Marshall Mcluhan: The Medium is the Message
- Media technology influences our perception and social organization, “electronic” cultures replace
1960‟s – Raymond Williams (UK) studied Popular Culture
1970‟s – Stuart Hall (Birmingham) developed British Cultural Studies
- Stuart Hall: Representation Cultural Studies and media
o Media images represent and help construct reality for us, our culture is “media saturated”
1970‟s - George Gerber (US) developed Cultivation Theory
1980‟s – (US, UK and Canada) research on Political Economy of media.
1990‟s – Global growth of communication and media studies (Brock, 1980‟s)
2000-present – Digital culture and social media change the definition of “mass media”
- New concept of Transmedia emphasizes multiple platforms, interconnection, interaction.
Media and Communication in other disciplines
- Literary studies
o Narrative, genre and stories textual analysis)
o Dramatic arts in popular media (TV drama, comedy, soap opera)
o Studies of authorship in media (film directors or TV writers)
Humanities and Media
- Visual Arts
o Analysis of images and symbols (semiotics)
o Theories of meaning in media
o Media and identity
o History of media technology
o Media and social change
Social Sciences and Media
o Compares media in different political systems (democracy vs. socialism)
o Political communication, how media influence voting and policy.
o Ownership of media (political economy)
o Communication in business: marketing, PR. Advertising COMM 1F90 3
LECTURE 2 WEEK 3
Communication and media emerged as distinct objects of study in the early 20 century
Communication and media are interdisciplinary: multiple approaches applied to the same object.
Social Sciences and Media
o Mental and emotional aspects of media
o Media and perception of cognition
o Media influence on family, gender, and ethnicity.
o Media workers as a social group
o Social impact of media on violence, sexuality, health and environment.
Sociology or Psychology:
Violence in videogames
- Does violence in videogames cause children and youth to behave more aggressively?
Two Main Fields of Communication Studies
1. Human Communication:
- Not dependent on media, between self and others, face-to-face. (2 Term)
- Four Types of human communication:
o Group Communication
o Organizational Communication
Governments, Political Parties etc,
o Cross Cultural communication
Take the 1 3, and see how it influences Media and Communication
2. Mass Communication:
- Uses mechanical, electronic, digital tools.
o Mass production, reproduction and distribution of communication content.
Four eras in communication History
o Language, face-to-face, human communication
o Universal form of communication
o Alphabets, writing, printing press COMM 1F90 4
o Hand written books, Ancient Greek scrolls, etc.
o 20 century mass media, film, broadcasting
o Easier to send and receive.
o Uses all earlier forms, requires digital networks, “social” media.
o Incorporates all forms of communication and adds effectiveness
History of Print Culture
- Transition from oral to literate era
o The printing press eroded the powerful role of church and state in early modern society by
creating new forms of print the way they wanted it.
Mass Media page 3
1. Mechanical, electronic and digital communication technologies
2. Used to produce and consume messages between senders and receivers.
3. Distributed across time and space for economic profit and public service.
Three types of Media Technology
o Print, photography, records and film
o Telephone, radio, television
o Text, image, sound on computer networks (CMC)
- Digital networks break down distinctions between center and “mass”
- Are web-based social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc.) mass media or interpersonal
- What are “new media? Social Media, transmedia, immersive media still include “old” media forms.
Digital Media: Decentralized, distributive.
Media in Society: Media World
Media <=> World: interrelation between media and society.
Media => World: how media represents and constructs the world
Mediaworld: contemporary media-saturated culture and society.
Themes in media studies
- Social contradiction: Media have positive and negative impacts. COMM 1F90 5
- Focus on texts: Media content reflects social values.
- Historical and global contexts: Media are shaped by their environment.
- Psychology of media: Media shape our identity.
- Multiple determinations of media: 5 main factors influence media development (to follow).
- Critical perspectives: concepts of ideology discourse and hegemony applied to media power.
Five Media “determinants”
1. CREATIVITY: The use of media tools to express human ideas
2. TECHNOLOGY: Changing forms of media production, storage, and distribution.
3. ECONOMY: Ownership and control of media technologies and influence over its content.
4. SOCIETY: Relations of POWER in access to and control of media.
5. CONSUMPTION: how media are used and interpreted by audiences.
Republic of Doyle: Five media determinants
o Alan Hawco’s humor, Newfoundland community and Canadian ident