COMM 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Elitism, Fourth Wall

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Published on 21 Dec 2015
Course
Professor
COMM1F90
IntrotoCommunications&MediaStudies
Lecture#2
HaroldInnis
Space,Time,Media
● communicationismorethanjustamessagegoingfromAtoB
● materialformcommunicationtakeshasaneffectonsocietyplaysintopractices
Innis:MediaBias
(not“prejudice”)
● TimeBiasedMedia
● durable,butnotportable(clay,parchment)
● centralizedgovernancessupportedbyreligiousorder
● closeknitcommunities,closetogetherw/starkclassdivisions
● SpaceBiasedMedia
● portable,butnotdurable(papyrus,paper,electriccomm.)
● decentralizedgovernancesupportedbyprofessionals
● large,dispersedcommunitiesw/complexlabourdivisions
TheUniversity&ScientificSocieties
● scientificrevolutionrelatedtodevelopmentofthemodernuniversityand,hence,modern
society
● struggleoverwhichsocialentitieswouldbecometheprimaryproducersofknowledge
● production&circulationofknowledgeunderwritesemergenceofEuropeanimperial
power
TheUniversity:TimeBiased
Mediaparchmentfosterstextualdependence,scarcity,accumulationandstorage(even
fetishism)
KnowledgeisPowertextualaccuracyisparamountvirtue;textsbecomesacredas
objectsaswellascontent;the‘word’becomesthelaw
MonasticElitismReligiousordersbecomeguardians,gatekeepers,interpreters,and
arbitersofsocialknowledgeanditsapplication
ScientificSocieties:SpaceBiased
Media(paperbooks)portabilityandreproducibilityfosterswidedissemination;riseof
thevernacular;shiftofexpertiseoutsideofreligiousorders
PowerisKnowledgetextualaccuracylessimportantthathypothesistesting&
verification;errorcorrectionbecomesagoal,notafear,‘law’becomestenuous
ExpertCulturescientists(physical&social)becomeguardians,interpreters,etcof
socialknowledgeanditsapplication
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● Meansandmodesofcommunicationand,therefore,knowledgeproductionarethus
significantfactorsinthetransformationofEuropeansociety(&theworld)viaconduitof
thescientificrevolution
● RiseofEurope’seconomic,political,andmilitarydominantoftheglobeemergesin
tandemwithNEEDfortechnologicaladvanceandresearchintomattersofnatural
history,navigation,astronomy,etc.
● Withprintandthepublicsphere,we’llseesomethingsimilaroccurinrelationtopolitics,
print,andmassmedia…
Lecture#3
MedievalCommNetworks
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● Religious
● Civil
● Commerce
● Individual
Print:TheFirstMassMedium
Biblesandbroadsheetsenableformationof“mass”communitiesofreaders;setsgroundwork
foremergenceofpress
Massification
● formationandcirculationofcommonbodiesknowledge
● reductionofregionaldiversity
● “globalvillage”
ThePublicSphere
● Problem:integrationof(private)righttopoliticalandeconomicactivitywiththesocial
(public)goalofrepresentative,statebased,governance
● Solution:publicspheredevelopsviathecommunicativeapparatusofprintjournalism
(news)
NewsandthePublicSphere
● “mass”isabitdeceptive(R.Williams)
● massificationprovidesgroundforestablishingapublicsphere
Lecture#4
ManufacturingConsent:Herman&Chomsky’s5Filters
ThePropagandaModel
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